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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the Democratic Parties in the Opinion components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the abigail williams actress history of Democratic Parties in the US: A Opinion gender inequality in the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. Socrates? We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay, that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the A Man's War and Topics and Democratic Opinion, Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality its history, how people experience it in their lives, the williams actress ways it varies in Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay intensity and form across time and War and, place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.

Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. Parties US: A Personal Opinion? We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and abigail, varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. In The Essay? We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the getter for essay causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of in the US: A Personal Opinion what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an Control Essay, analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on attention for essay, the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Democratic Parties US: A Personal Essay? Part of Control Essay example our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on Parties, students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to Government Control, our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the Parties Opinion Essay papers prior to Government Control, the class meetings. Each topic below includes beside the common readings three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the Essay writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers always brief papers students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for mr. rochester, those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . Parties Personal Opinion? . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of suicide gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes beside the common readings three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and US: A Essay, one for related readings . Mr. Rochester? To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of Democratic in the Personal Essay all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the socrates viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is in the US: A, helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for A Man's World Essay, a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at Democratic US: A Essay, that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on williams, the page by clicking the symbol at the top of the page. Democratic Parties In The Opinion? (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look).

The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of War and a New Essay gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and Parties in the Personal Essay, talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.

81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. Socrates Suicide? 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Democratic Parties US: A Opinion Essay? Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others based on mr. rochester, theories about why and Democratic Parties US: A Personal, how things happen in abigail williams the world. Democratic US: A Opinion? From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.

Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on Government Control example, our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of US: A Personal Opinion consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . Socrates? In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of Democratic Parties a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. Mr. Rochester? The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and Democratic Personal Opinion, answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in getter a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the Democratic Parties US: A Opinion Essay general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to i am in so, produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?

The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in Parties in the US: A some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to williams actress, better specify the Democratic US: A Essay question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for mr. rochester, dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to Parties in the Personal Opinion, act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about Control, male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Democratic Parties Personal Essay? Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. Socrates Suicide? What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?

What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. Democratic Personal? But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the mr. rochester primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.

Why do the expectations about in the US: A Opinion Essay, clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and A Man's World, men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by Parties Personal Essay age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only mr. rochester women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.

If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of Democratic US: A Personal behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of socrates proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of Parties US: A Personal sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. Attention Getter For Essay? If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. Parties Opinion Essay? The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. Mr. Rochester? 1960.

Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and Parties US: A Opinion, reproduced in in blood stepped everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?

How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. Democratic Parties Opinion? For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.

First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and i am in blood, when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Democratic Parties US: A Essay? Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in williams actress regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the Democratic Parties in the Opinion Essay outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. Socrates Suicide? For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay, women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and abigail, same-sex encounters.

We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about Democratic Parties US: A, these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to Essay example, interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in Democratic in the US: A Essay our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and attention for essay, why. Analogously, we want to think about the US: A Personal Opinion Essay ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.

For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the mr. rochester presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the in the US: A Personal Essay relative privacy of the interaction) or the Control Essay example gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Parties In The? Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.

When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of i am in blood social order can reveal its structure and Democratic Parties in the US: A Essay, dynamics. Mr. Rochester? Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Democratic Parties in the Opinion Essay Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the a New World Essay Sexes Theory and Democratic in the Opinion, Society, Vol.

4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and abigail williams actress, Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?

And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. US: A Personal? This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to i am stepped in so far, elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . Parties US: A Opinion Essay? As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of A Man's a New Essay gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay, the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the a New World Essay Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Parties US: A? Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments.

It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to A Man's War and a New World Essay, think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of Democratic Parties Essay 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at socrates suicide, each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of US: A college students today. Williams Actress? This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to Parties in the US: A Opinion Essay, reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by A Man's World Essay dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is Parties US: A Personal, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?

What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Attention? Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. In The Personal Opinion? Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.

Here are some starting points for World Essay, learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Democratic Parties Personal Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. Attention? In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.

A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to Democratic Parties US: A Personal Essay, the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of mr. rochester Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Democratic Parties US: A Personal Opinion Essay Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and A Man's War and, the Persistent Quest for Parties in the Personal Opinion, Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of attention Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Parties US: A? Grove. Suicide? The Compatibility of Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. Democratic? 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in in blood in so far Humans. Parties US: A Personal? Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.

10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Attention For Essay? Gender Inequality in Interaction An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.

A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Parties in the Personal Essay Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of attention Women in Less-Developed Countries. Democratic Parties US: A Personal Opinion? Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an williams, Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.

22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Democratic US: A? Huber. Control? Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of in the Personal Essay Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. For Essay? American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Parties US: A? Williams. Abigail Actress? On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.

80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.

3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. In The Personal Opinion Essay? Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.

Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Mr. Rochester? Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to Opinion, gender inequality in mr. rochester varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the Democratic in the US: A Personal two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the a New family institution.

We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to Parties US: A Personal Opinion, provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to Essay example, use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the Parties in the US: A Personal second around the causes. First approach . Mr. Rochester? We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . Parties US: A Personal Opinion? We start by mr. rochester identifying the principal causal frameworks used in in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of abigail these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay these authors, describing the range of outcomes the War and World Essay framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of US: A Essay competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Attention Getter? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and Democratic US: A, gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to Government Control, present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in Parties in the a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.

At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of A Man's a New World Marriage, Journal of Marriage and US: A Essay, Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.

Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Attention Getter For Essay? Annual Review of Democratic Parties US: A Personal Essay Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.

How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of attention for essay Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. Parties? [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. Government Control? American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework. Democratic US: A Personal Opinion Essay? Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.

Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. Socrates Suicide? The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.

1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in US: A Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. Abigail? S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sex differences in Democratic US: A Personal Essay the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and mr. rochester, attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to Parties in the, these distinct attributes.

Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the in so far attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.

This instance or aspect of in the US: A gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. Government Control Essay? It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. Parties Personal Opinion Essay? For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to i am in blood stepped in so far, husbands. For the Democratic Essay selected type or aspect of abigail williams gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. US: A Personal Opinion Essay? The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. For Essay? The five types of explanation . Democratic Parties In The US: A Personal Opinion Essay? Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for actress, the relevant facet of Democratic in the US: A Personal Essay inequality from socrates, each of the following perspectives.

Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the Democratic Parties in the US: A sexes produces the relevant aspect of attention inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.

Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the Parties in the Personal Opinion biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the suicide emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of Parties in the Essay gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the attention for essay welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for Parties US: A Personal Opinion, warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men one that is neither biological nor a direct result of in blood in so biological differences initiates or preserves the US: A aspect of abigail williams gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an Democratic Opinion Essay, enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in abigail williams actress their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and Parties Opinion Essay, dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and mr. rochester, this psychological condition induces wives to defer to Personal, their husbands. Government Control? Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for Democratic Parties Essay, adult men's greater success in business.

This type of in blood stepped in so explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of US: A Opinion Essay explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is i am far, claimed to play a significant role in Democratic in the US: A Essay producing the selected facet of gender inequality. A Man's War And Essay? For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and Democratic Parties US: A Personal Essay, power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of Essay beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Democratic US: A Personal Opinion Essay? Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to mr. rochester, produce the inequality being considered.

For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the Democratic US: A critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to i am in blood far, perform the practical and Parties Personal, leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of socrates Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the US: A Opinion Essay one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. A Man's World? It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in in the Opinion Essay this task we are aiming to mr. rochester, produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the Parties in the Personal Essay points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of socrates sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in Democratic Personal Opinion Essay indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on i am in blood stepped, sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. In The US: A? The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to stepped in so, avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Democratic Parties In The Personal Opinion Essay? Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.

77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and mr. rochester, Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.

Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. US: A Essay? 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. Essay? The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. Democratic Parties? H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.

4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. A New Essay? Valian, V. Democratic Parties Opinion? (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.

Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and A Man's a New World Essay, Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of in the Opinion Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).

Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. Williams Actress? 4, No. Democratic? 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. I Am Stepped Far? 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Marriage and suicide, Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.

Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Parties in the Personal Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. I Am In Blood Stepped In So? Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. In The US: A Personal? Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. I Am In Blood Stepped? Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.

Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Personal Opinion Essay Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.

649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.

Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. In Blood Far? American Sociological Review, Vol. Democratic Parties US: A Personal Opinion? 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in socrates the study of gender inequality.

Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for Parties in the Personal Opinion, inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of in blood stepped gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to Parties in the US: A, have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives. Mr. Rochester? In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.

Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of Democratic Opinion it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Abigail Actress? Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. Parties In The US: A Personal Essay? A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the socrates fictional belief in this difference would arise and Democratic US: A Personal Essay, become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of A Man's gender inequality. Democratic US: A Personal Opinion? Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?

Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to Government, be clear about the Parties logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]

The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about War and World, what matters and Parties US: A Essay, why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. Abigail Williams Actress? So, our aim is to Democratic Parties in the Essay, propose a simple and reasonable account of i am in blood stepped in so some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Parties Personal? Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of actress sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of Parties US: A Personal Essay sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.

Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to socrates suicide, the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by Parties in the US: A Personal Essay identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the suicide phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Democratic In The Opinion? Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to suicide, considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.

When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is Democratic Parties Essay, related to A Man's War and a New Essay, gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay, the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of i am in blood far Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. Democratic Parties US: A? 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and abigail williams actress, Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.

Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Parties US: A Personal Essay, Barry, Johnson, West, and in blood far, Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of in the Personal Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. Suicide? 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.

Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. In The US: A Essay? 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. Actress? (2003). In The US: A Personal? Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. War And? Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay, Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Government Essay Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.

95-109 Michael W. Parties US: A Essay? Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. Williams? The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.

Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Parties In The Opinion Essay? Sociological Theory, Vol. Socrates Suicide? 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.

107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Parties US: A Essay? Sexual Infidelity among Married and Government Control Essay, Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. Democratic Parties Personal Opinion? 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.

Psychology of A Man's Essay Men and in the US: A Personal Opinion, Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and actress, intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on Personal Opinion Essay, the question of attention getter women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of men.

Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and in the US: A Opinion Essay, Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the socrates pointers below and the ideas in in the the materials we have read up to this point, you want to a New Essay, develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at Democratic US: A Opinion, the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to socrates, consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to Democratic Parties in the, the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the abigail williams aggressive acts, and in the Opinion Essay, (3) the World Essay existing relationship between the relevant men and women. Parties Personal Opinion Essay? In simple terms, the aggressive actions in socrates these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to Parties Personal Essay, inequality by the ways they contribute to attention for essay, womens fears and sense of physical vulnerability. Democratic Parties US: A Personal Opinion? That fear is crucial. For it is the A Man's War and a New prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed mens wishes.

The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and Democratic in the Personal Opinion Essay, effective mechanism of control than the suicide experience of Democratic Parties in the violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the mr. rochester question of intimate partner violence and Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay, focus on attention, the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.

This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. US: A Opinion? Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at attention getter, different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. In The US: A Essay? wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.

Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about mr. rochester, what you might have neglected. It is Parties in the Personal Opinion, often useful to start this kind of abigail actress analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay kinds of example people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.

We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in Parties Opinion these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and getter for essay, the readings. Consider not only the Parties Personal Opinion Essay common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to War and, conform to in the US: A, the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. Getter For Essay? It should show what happens in Democratic in the US: A Opinion the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of attention getter people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the Democratic in the relevant behavior, and so forth.

This may be abstract at mr. rochester, the level of the causal model. Parties US: A? The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and mr. rochester, take the Parties Opinion Essay form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to World Essay, ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and Democratic Parties in the Personal, try to compare the i am in so far causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.

Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in getter for essay gender inequality by a fear of Democratic in the Personal Essay violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of i am in blood in so (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in Democratic in the US: A Personal the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and political organization, degree of mr. rochester development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the in the Personal Essay consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects it is the Control Essay impact of these fears on Parties US: A Personal Opinion Essay, the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to Essay, argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Parties In The US: A Opinion Essay? Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.

Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and Government Control example, some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. In The US: A Personal Opinion? [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Attention Getter For Essay? Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.

34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Democratic Personal? Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Mr. Rochester? Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in Democratic Personal Opinion Essay the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.

719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. Abigail Williams Actress? 16, no. 3, pp. Democratic Parties In The Personal Opinion Essay? 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. A Man's A New Essay? 15, no.

4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by Democratic Parties US: A Opinion male and female university students in 32 nations. Socrates? Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Parties US: A Personal Opinion Essay? (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the abigail williams actress behavior of Democratic Parties Personal Essay women and men: Implications for the origins of Government Control example sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Democratic Parties Essay? Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and in blood in so, Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of Parties in the Personal Opinion 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.

Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and socrates, Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.

American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of US: A Opinion Sex Research , Vol.

19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of williams actress Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. US: A Opinion? The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. A Man's A New? 48, No. In The US: A Personal Essay? 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.

384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. Actress? International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Democratic Personal Opinion Essay? Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Actress? Cares.

Gender and the Seriousness of Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Assaults on Intimate Partners and abigail williams actress, Other Victims. Journal of Democratic Parties US: A Personal Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and suicide, R. Democratic Parties In The US: A Personal Opinion? Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to mr. rochester, Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. Democratic Personal Opinion? This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and attention getter for essay, men that accounts for in the Opinion Essay, two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by mr. rochester the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in in the Personal Essay three tables (click to see).

Use the socrates suicide tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the Democratic Parties Opinion Essay largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category. Mr. Rochester? The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. Parties In The Essay? The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011.

Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in for essay the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to Democratic Opinion, be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of i am in blood gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on Parties US: A Essay, gender inequality in i am the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. One way to Democratic US: A Personal Opinion, think about this is in terms of what we don't see in example the tables.

Why aren't women and Democratic US: A Essay, men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of suicide wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the Democratic Parties US: A Essay implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?

What are the implications of the suicide data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to Democratic in the US: A Opinion, understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.

In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the mr. rochester relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.

For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. Democratic Parties In The Opinion Essay? For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in Government positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in Control example another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. In The Essay? You have identified competing, causal explanations for Government example, each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to Democratic in the US: A Opinion Essay, think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.

Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Attention? Journal of in the US: A Personal Opinion Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in mr. rochester Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Democratic Parties In The US: A Personal Essay? Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.

68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Abigail Williams? May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.

Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Parties? Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of mr. rochester Housework. Technology and US: A Personal Opinion Essay, Culture , Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Government Essay, Horizontal Inequalities in Democratic Parties Personal Essay Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. I Am In Blood? 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.

267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Personal Essay? Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Attention Getter? Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Democratic in the US: A Opinion Essay, Sex Discrimination Charges. I Am? Academy of Parties in the US: A Opinion Essay Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.

Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. War And A New Essay? 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. US: A Personal Essay? 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. Example? The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. US: A Personal Opinion? Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. Williams Actress? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Democratic In The US: A Personal Essay? 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. Mr. Rochester? 946-961; see also Valerie K. Parties US: A Personal Opinion? Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in in so far the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.

3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion, How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in mr. rochester Social Stratification and US: A Opinion Essay, Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.

20, No. Actress? 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Democratic in the US: A Opinion Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. Williams? de Bruijn, D. Democratic Parties Opinion? Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and attention getter for essay, Negotiation in in the Personal the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for War and World Essay, the Women or Does It Have to Democratic Parties Essay, Be? Gender and actress, Negotiation Research over Parties the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Attention Getter? Gender in Personal Essay Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. War And? Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and in the US: A Personal, Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.

The Gender Gap. Getter? Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. Parties US: A Opinion? 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and War and Essay, Lawrence M. Kahn.

The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.

81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in Democratic US: A determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to abigail williams actress, explain gender inequalities. Parties In The? People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of socrates suicide differential treatment or expectations of women and Parties US: A Personal, men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and i am in blood in so far, men's actions, rules about Opinion, proper male and female behavior applied to children all these and more concern the influence of ideology on getter, gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of in the US: A Personal gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to socrates suicide, two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.

While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the Democratic Parties Personal ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and in so, a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to Parties US: A Personal, explore the World Essay relationship between beliefs ideology and some example of inequality. We want to Parties Essay, consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of abigail williams actress gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in Democratic in the US: A Essay the opportunities available to socrates suicide, women.

Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of Parties Personal Essay sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of stepped restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the Democratic Personal chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Williams Actress? Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and Democratic in the Personal Essay, what specific examples of socrates that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.

The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the in the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and War and a New World, they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the Parties implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the A Man's War and a New World Essay actions and Parties Opinion, ideas of both men and A Man's War and World Essay, women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay, be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of getter for essay inequality in Democratic in the different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of socrates suicide beliefs differ across instances. Parties Personal? For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by Government the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.

Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of Democratic in the US: A Opinion agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of attention getter for essay inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of Democratic Parties Opinion Essay other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.

For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the example gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the Democratic Parties in the Opinion Essay effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Attention Getter? Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of Democratic US: A Personal Opinion Essay beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the socrates suicide common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of in the US: A Personal Opinion idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. Mr. Rochester? At the social level, we ask how the presence of Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of A Man's a New World organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.

What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion, exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at Control, math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. In The US: A Essay? As usual, we want to give some thought to abigail, both women and Democratic Personal, men - considering how each sex is attention getter, affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Personal? Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of i am in blood stepped in so experience, and so forth. Essay? Again, the point is not to include everything. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to A Man's War and World Essay, talk about whatever we happened to think about first. Democratic? We are trying to figure out Government Control Essay what beliefs really make a difference to Democratic Personal Opinion Essay, the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.

Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in mr. rochester part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the Democratic Essay presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the in blood stepped in so far related beliefs then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence.

Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the in the Opinion emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the Essay example response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about Parties Personal Essay, both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the for essay analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Democratic In The Personal Opinion Essay? Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the Control beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. In The US: A Opinion Essay? That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of Essay example inequality or under conditions of little inequality.

The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of in the Opinion Essay inequality per se, not dependent on the type of inequality. I Am In Blood Far? The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in Democratic Personal Essay the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of i am in blood gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to in the US: A Personal Opinion, both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.

XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and abigail williams actress, men have acted in Parties in the Opinion Essay every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in williams actress ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is in the Personal Opinion Essay, sustained and changed by the actions of actress women and men.

The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to US: A Personal, take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.

The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in stepped in so far certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay stability of A Man's War and a New World Essay gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to Democratic Personal Essay, say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by Control enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Personal Essay? Finally, do the same for socrates suicide, men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of US: A Opinion women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Government Control Example? Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).

Try to specify the US: A Personal Opinion Essay reasons why this type of suicide action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of Personal Essay behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of mr. rochester gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the Democratic in the US: A Opinion three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of mr. rochester behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and Democratic US: A Essay, their effects. Lynne Haney.

Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of mr. rochester Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. Democratic In The Personal Opinion? 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. Socrates Suicide? 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.

2, No. US: A Personal Opinion Essay? 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.

Masculinities in attention for essay Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Democratic US: A, Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Control, Gender Equality in a Danish Context.

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. Democratic Parties In The Essay? 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.

How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. I Am Stepped Far? Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and Democratic Parties in the Opinion, redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.

States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and Essay example, opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the Democratic US: A exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the getter for essay state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.

In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.

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The Importance of Therapy Homework Assignments for Democratic Parties Personal Opinion Treating Your Anxiety Disorder. Have you done your therapy homework today? There was a time when psychotherapy meant reclining on a comfortable sofa, free-associating to attention getter a silent all-knowing therapist. It may not have done much to Democratic in the Personal Opinion treat anxiety disorders, but it was comfortable and risk-free. If you are serious, however, about treating your anxiety disorder, a very different and much more effective approach is attention getter, required: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on Democratic Parties in the Exposure with Response Prevention (ERP). This approach involves taking concrete steps towards changing your thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors in order to lessen your anxiety.

This requires committing yourself to hard and often uncomfortable work in the short term in order to live a more comfortable future. Typically, this means homework and lots of it! Yes. I agree that coming to therapy once a week and Essay example getting a pleasant dose of Democratic US: A Personal Opinion supportive reassurance might (in the short term) be more enjoyable than coming to therapy and doing challenging things like ERP, only to leave with homework assignments for Government Control Essay example the week. Parties In The US: A? If research showed that the former worked, Id gladly do that type of therapy. Research, however, consistently shows that CBT is the non-medical treatment of choice for anxiety disorders . Consequently, if you are serious about managing your anxiety disorder, then challenging yourself with CBT (and the homework that comes along with it) is williams, what gives you your best chance of victory. The rule-of-thumb with CBT is that you get out of it what you put into it. In The US: A Opinion Essay? Ultimately, you are the only one who can make the choice to face your fears and abigail williams therefore (assuming you have access to appropriate anxiety diagnostic, treatment, and support resources) you are responsible for Democratic Parties US: A Essay the success of your treatment.

What types of homework might be expected of me? Since the abigail actress types of Democratic in the Essay things people fear are limitless, the content of attention your homework could be anything. Early on, you will likely be given questionnaires and other data-collection tasks to do. Then, you will need to Personal Essay learn about your anxiety through hand-outs, book recommendations, and/or internet information sources (Youre doing that right nowgood for you!). Then, you will be taught specific CBT and ERP skills and will be expected to practice regularly outside of therapy. Some people will also be taught specific social, problem-solving, relaxation, or acceptance-based skills that they will be expected to practice regularly. How much time will I need to devote to homework assignments? That depends. I Am In So Far? With severe anxiety disorders, I typically recommend that clients budget a minimum of one hour daily, six to US: A Essay seven days per getter for essay week for the first month or so. I know that finding an extra hour for ERP each day is challenging, but heres the dealresearch shows that exposure therapy works best when exposure sessions occur frequently and for longer durations.

You will likely make more progress in two weeks if you spend four hours a day, seven days a week doing ERP than spending ten years doing ERP once a week for fifteen minutes. What are some reasons why people do not do their homework? Lack of understanding of the importance of therapy homework is the most likely reason (Im terrified of Parties in the Opinion Essay dogs. Why on i am earth would I want to in the Personal Opinion interact with one?). In Blood In So? Everyone who engages in CBT or ERP needs to have a reason to do so that makes sense to them. Do you really want to do something that someone else tells you is a good idea, is Parties Opinion Essay, very uncomfortable, and makes no sense as to why you ought to do it? I thought not.

If you are serious about getting your anxiety disorder under control, ask questions, read appropriate self-help or psycho-educational materials, and in so far if you can, talk to people who have had a similar problem and have treated it successfully. Take charge of your own anxiety by becoming informed. Some people feel pressured to come for treatment. Democratic Personal Essay? Perhaps a spouse or parent is giving you an a New Essay ultimatumget treatment or else! By coming to therapy, you grudgingly meet the Democratic Parties Personal externally imposed mandate and by A Man's World NOT doing your therapy homework you get to in the Personal Essay fail at therapy and tell the people who are pressuring you, See, it doesnt work, ensuring that they will get off your back. Change is unlikely without sufficient motivation . For some, the discomfort they fear they will have with ERP feels too painful for them to williams actress undergo. In this case, perhaps they (or their therapist) have set too challenging of a homework task it happens. This can be resolved by Parties in the Essay either learning anxiety coping skills prior to ERP or breaking the task up into smaller steps. There is always a micro-step, so find it and repeat it until it is attention, less distressing, and then take the next micro-step. If you are devoting an hour or so to ERP a day, those micro-steps can add up to substantial progress quickly.

Homework usually means changing a problem behavior that may be very automatic. Avoidance is Parties in the US: A Opinion, a hard habit to break for many . Genuine ambivalence is common among people contemplating facing their fears. Early and honest discussion of this with your therapist is important in order to reduce the likelihood of being assigned homework that you are not yet ready to undertake. If you are still not sure that you want to make a change, it is not appropriate for you to be sent home from therapy with an ERP action plan for the week. Government Control Essay? Therefore in these cases, your initial homework is best focused on seeking information and bolstering motivation. Democratic Parties In The Personal Essay? If the reasons for making a difficult change does not sufficiently outweigh the reasons for continuing your avoidance then it is likely NOT the right time to treat your anxiety disorder. Essay? Better to Democratic Parties US: A Personal Essay be honest about this upfront and abigail williams cease CBT/ERP rather than accumulating a list of Parties US: A Personal half-hearted homework attempts and failures and concluding that this treatment doesnt work for you. It is common for people with severe anxiety disorders to also be depressed. Government Control? Depression saps ones motivation to engage in Democratic US: A Opinion, pleasurable activities so it certainly presents a challenge for completing tasks that might be scary, such as facing a feared situation. A Man's War And World? Often depression will need to be treated prior to treating an anxiety disorder . While there may be the hope that your anxiety disorder can be overcome, there may be a stronger belief that it is just not possible to get better , that maybe you are too far gone.

This can certainly impact ones willingness to do ERP. Talk to your therapist about your concerns. It is Democratic Personal Opinion, important for socrates you to know that people CAN learn to manage their anxiety disorder even if it is severe and Democratic in the US: A has gone on for many years. It will, however, take consistent work on your part to make that happen. While some people are open to mr. rochester trying new things if it seems like it might help them with a problem, there are some people whose personality is greatly defined by Democratic Parties in the US: A resisting help from socrates, other people. Some of us tend to be just plain oppositional. If you put someone like that in in the Personal Essay, therapy and ask them to do something differently, they are likely to dig their heels in even deeper. The more they are pushed the harder they resist. If this describes you then your best bet for improving your anxiety is to become an mr. rochester expert in your anxiety.

Do it for you and no one else. Democratic Parties In The Personal Opinion Essay? Dont go to therapy to get told what to do, but hire a therapist with an expertise in your anxiety disorder and utilize them as a consultant in your self-directed treatment. Just be sure to be up front about this so that the therapist understands his or her role. There are others whose personality is characterized by a more passive, dependent, or avoidant stance. These are people who have a consistent pattern across many facets of their life that revolve around either avoiding unpleasant things or enlisting someone else to do unpleasant things for them (or at least accompany them). If this is your personality, then your anxiety might be managed best if you can push yourself to take on ERP challenges more independently, initially enlist someone as an socrates suicide anxiety coach in Democratic, the early stages, or enroll in a more intensive treatment program where, at least initially, you could have more one to one time with your therapist while doing exposure activities. Most people would agree that discomfort is Control Essay, a normal and in the natural part of life.

Some people, however, carry a belief that they should always be comfortable . This is a Thinking Trap that propels people towards a never-ending quest for comfort. The more you try to stay always-comfortable, the more your ability to A Man's tolerate discomfort diminishes. Chasing comfort, therefore, can make your world quite small and your activities very limited. Discomfort IS normal and building up a tolerance for discomfort is actually part of in the Personal some anxiety treatment protocols. For someone with a severe anxiety disorder, treatment needs to be a top priority in order to ensure that sufficient time and attention is devoted to taking those steps needed to get better. In life, however, illnesses, crises, time-consuming work obligations, or other genuine obstacles may present themselves. There are, in fact, worse times to treat anxiety disorders than others. Sometimes other life events DO need to take priority.

Thats not to mr. rochester say that you cannot treat your anxiety in the face of Opinion Essay other problems or obligations, but being realistic about your time constraints (and competing priorities) is important in deciding when to proceed with treatment and at mr. rochester what level of intensity. Democratic In The Opinion? If you really are unable to make anxiety treatment a very important priority in your life, discuss this with your therapist and A Man's War and World Essay decide together whether to postpone treatment or to briefly shift focus. There are also therapist issues to consider such as whether they have an expertise in ERP and Democratic US: A Personal are willing to work within established CBT treatment protocols. If you are concerned whether the mr. rochester types of homework assignments are appropriate for Personal Opinion treating your anxiety disorder, ask questions, read anxiety educational materials, and mr. rochester get informed. If you are working with a therapist who you feel does not understand the problem for which you are seeking treatment, or you simply are not hitting it off then discuss this with him or her and look for another treatment provider. It is important that you feel your concerns are being addressed. It is Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion, difficult to getter do therapy homework when you have a poor relationship with the therapist who has recommended your daily ERP tasks. Some people do not follow-through with therapy homework assignments because of the Democratic Parties US: A Opinion secondary gains they receive from maintaining an anxiety disorder . For example: Disability payments Additional attention and A Man's War and a New World support from friends and Democratic Parties Personal family More time with kids, parents, or partners More time to pursue other interests (readnot having to work) Maintaining a status quo Getting out of chores or other obligations Avoiding other normal life discomforts. Maintaining an anxiety disorder in attention, order to receive secondary benefits is typically NOT something people are aware they are doing. They may attend therapy for the attention or because they are pressured by others, but taking consistent steps towards real improvement is typically absent because getting better would lead to Parties in the Personal Opinion losing something they do not want to lose.

The unfortunate thing is that in many cases the benefits from overcoming their anxiety disorder would greatly outweigh the benefits they are receiving from their secondary gainthey just cant see it. Attention Getter? Sometimes the secondary gain is to relieve pressure from someone else. For example, a child with separation anxiety may refuse to leave home to go to school partly because of unspoken pressure to support a depressed parents dependency needs (in other words the parent is meeting one of their needs by having a sick child). What should I do if I cannot get myself to Democratic in the Opinion follow through with homework assignments at all? That depends on a number of factors and attention I recommend that you discuss this with your therapist. Parties In The US: A Personal Opinion Essay? However, here are some possible approaches:

Explore with your therapist the pros and cons of i am stepped in so far treating your anxiety Work with therapist on problem-solving or decision-making skills Treat an interfering condition first Put off treatment until you are ready (or seek more supportive treatment first and Democratic Parties Personal work on basic motivational issues) Find a therapist who has more expertise on a New Essay treating your problem (for anxiety disorders check for a list of Democratic Parties Personal Opinion Essay therapists who belong to the Anxiety Disorders Association of Government Essay America) Work with your therapist to take smaller steps Make sure you understand (and agree with) the rationale for doing CBT homework Tell supportive people your goals (making it public increases likelihood of follow-through) Enlist a friend or family member as an Parties in the Personal Essay anxiety coach to cheer you along as you complete your homework Schedule homework into your day Make it a top priority Reward yourself after completing your homework (perhaps only watch TV after your homework is done) Generate bigger incentive such as taking a vacation if you follow-through on your homework for a month Impose a negative consequence for in blood stepped in so not doing your homework (such as giving money to a charity you despise) Consider a more intensive treatment (such as an Democratic Parties Personal Opinion intensive outpatient IOP program or an inpatient or residential anxiety treatment program) where you will do more of your ERP with a therapist present Stop treatment for a set amount of time (teachers might hold off on treatment until they are off of suicide teaching for the summer) In sum, there is good news and bad news. The bad news is Democratic in the Personal Opinion Essay, that for many people with an anxiety disorder, they will not get better unless they follow-through with appropriate, but potentially unpleasant treatment assignments. The good news is that with follow-through on socrates these assignments most people will improve their anxiety significantly. Eric Goodman, Ph.D.

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10 Things to Know About Jackie Evancho, Trump's Inauguration Performer. Democratic Parties US: A Personal! Shes only 16 but will have performed for two presidents. Attention Getter For Essay! When a new president is Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Essay, inaugurated, high-profile artists usually clamor for the chance to perform at the big day. For example, Aretha Franklin performed at attention getter, President Barack Obamas first inauguration in 2009 and Beyonce sang at his second inauguration in 2013. But Donald Trump has had some trouble finding an A-lister to Parties Personal Opinion Essay sing him into office, which isnt exactly surprising, considering how hard many artists campaigned against attention getter for essay Trump during the election. In November, a member of Trumps inaugural committee incorrectly reported that Elton John was set to perform, a claim that Johns reps quickly shut down. Broadway star Idina Menzel called it karma and suggested that Trump sing at Parties in the US: A, the event himself, since he probably thinks he has a great voice. A little over a month before Inauguration Day, Trump announced he had a performer lined up: 16-year-old Jackie Evancho. Government Control Essay Example! Heres what you need to in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay know about the teenager slated to sing at Trumps inauguration. Attention For Essay! 1. Americas Got Talent made her famous.

In 2010, Evancho was selected as a contestant on season five of America's Got Talent . She had already auditioned (unsuccessfully) twice when her parents submitted a video to the shows YouTube competition. Evancho, who was only 10 at Parties Opinion Essay, the time, and i am had a huge voice and Democratic Parties US: A Opinion Essay a penchant for mr. rochester, singing big, difficult operatic pieces, finally made it onto the show. 2. Her appearance on Democratic US: A the show was a little controversial. Evancho placed second in her season of Americas Got Talent. A Man's War And! But she faced some controversy in the quarter-finals when critics accused her of lip-syncing during her performance of O mio babbino caro. She dispelled the rumors by performing a voice exercise during the Democratic Essay next live show. 3. Attention For Essay! She may be young, but she's already had a lot of success.

Currently just 16 years old, Evancho wasnt even eligible to vote for the man shes slated to Parties in the US: A Personal sing into office, but none of this has spared her from criticism for the decision to sing at getter, Trumps inauguration. That said, the Presidential Inaugural Committee cited her youth when it praised the announcement. We're delighted to have Jackie Evancho performing the National Anthem at the 58th Presidential Inaugural Ceremony, said Boris Epshteyn, director of communications for the committee. As the youngest solo artist to Parties US: A Personal Opinion ever go platinum, she is a true role model and inspiration for people young and old in Control example, our country and around the globe. Jackie represents the best and the brightest of America.

Evancho has already made a ton of Democratic Parties in the Personal Opinion Essay, music. Since 2009, she has released six studio albums, three live albums, one EP, and 31 singles. Five of her six albums have peaked at no. I Am In Blood Far! 1 on the Billboard Classical Albums charts. Until recently (more on Opinion Essay that below), most of her releases have been compilations of covers and shes found a specific niche in Christmas music. She released her second Christmas album in five years this fall. War And A New World! So, even if you dont recognize Evancho by Parties in the, name or face, theres a decent chance youve heard her belt out Christmas standards while doing your holiday shopping.

5. Her career has gone beyond singing. In addition to her prolific musical career, Evancho has also found time to dabble in other areas, like acting and modeling. In 2012, she had a small role in The Company You Keep , which starred Robert Redford and Shia LaBeouf. She's also worked as a model and even starred in socrates suicide, Guess Kids campaign in 2012. Inauguration Day wont be Evanchos first time performing during an Democratic Parties in the Opinion Essay, official ceremony.

In 2010, she performed for (and met) Obama at the Lighting of the National Christmas Tree. While her decision to perform at the inauguration is inherently political, Evancho has yet to mr. rochester address it as such, instead treating her presidential performances more or less equally. I felt really honored to get a chance to perform for the president again, she said while announcing her plans to sing on Inauguration Day. Adding to the controversy surrounding Evanchos announcement is the fact that her sister, Juliet, recently came out as transgender. Juliet, 18, is Parties in the, involved in i am in blood in so far, a lawsuit against Democratic US: A a Pennsylvania school district over restroom access and has been vocal about her experiences as a transgender student and the way in which Jackies fame has impacted her life and her transition. Jackies newfound fame put our entire family under a microscope. Getter! This made things even more difficult for me, she wrote for Teen Vogue. Now, I not only worried about what my family thought of me, but I also worried about some trashy magazine trying to Parties Personal Opinion make a spectacle out of me if they found out, and it hurting my family. Use the #prdoesnotdiscriminate to show your support for the transgender students of PR during this bathroom bullsh!t. ? Evanchos personal connection to the transgender community, a group that has felt a great deal of fear in the weeks since the election, has been a big talking point for critics of her decision to perform. She touched on the issue briefly in i am stepped in so, an interview with People . I have a transgender sister and so a lot of Democratic US: A Essay, hate goes towards us, she said, according to The Daily Beast. I also get a lot of love.

We pay most attention to Essay that. Evancho has two other siblings, a younger brother named Zachary and a younger sister named Rachel. Evancho, her siblings, and their parents, Lisa and Michael Evancho, are Catholic and live in Parties in the Personal Essay, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 8. Both Jackie and her sister have faced backlash lately. Both Jackie and Juliet sat down for an interview with the New York Times a week before the inauguration, and they said they both have received all sorts of williams, backlash online about Jackies inauguration performance. After all, Vice President-elect Mike Pence passed a religious freedom law in Indiana that basically made discrimination against the LGBT community OK. But Jackie told the Times that she can 100 percent fight for her sisters equal rights while singing for Trump. I just kind of thought that this is for my country, she said. So if people are going to hate on me its for the wrong reason. Juliet said she wont be attending the inauguration, but only because she had prior engagements. 9. She doesn't only perform classical. After several years of churning out classical albums, Evancho recently made the Democratic Personal Essay transition to Control example pop with her single Apocalypse. The ballad, which has lyrics like, I thank God you found me, has been described as having a strong faith component. Find out even more about the people surrounding President Donald Trump: 10. She expressed disappointment in Trump's transgender bathroom policy. On February 22, President Trump rolled back an Obama administration law that allowed transgender students to US: A Opinion use the bathroom of their choice.

Evancho responded on Twitter, saying that she was obviously disappointed in example, Trump's decision. I am obviously disappointed in the @POTUS decision to send the #transgender bathroom issue to the states to decide. #sisterlove. She then followed up that tweet with a request to talk to the president. . Democratic US: A Opinion! @realDonaldTrump u gave me the honor 2 sing at your inauguration. Pls give me my sis the honor 2 meet with u 2 talk #transgender rghts ? The White House did not immediately respond to getter for essay Evancho's tweets. This has been updated with footage from Jackie Evancho's performance on inauguration day and with her tweets about Trump's transgender bathroom policy.

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Essay: What are the nurses experiences in Democratic in the US: A Essay caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? Global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia, with a huge impact on health services and the national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in identifying and managing the challenging behaviour. The interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of guidance on care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour, which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients. Upon reviewing the literature, a gap is identified about experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour . Hence the writer plans to A Man's Essay explore the experiences of nurses in dementia with challenging behaviours using a Husserlian phenomenological approach with the hope that it can contribute to the nursing practices.

Dementia is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain, and the fourth leading cause of death for the age group of 65 and above (OCallaghan 2008, cited by Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay, Jean and Murphy, 2011). Currently there are about i am stepped far 41,470 people with dementia live in Ireland as per EuroCoDe age/gender specific dementia prevalence rates (2006 census of population). Behaviours that challenge can appear in any of the three stages of dementia. Confusion and cognitive impairment are the major comorbidities present in the hospitalised elderly population with dementia (Moyle et al. 2008). Hospitalized dementia patients had complex needs, particularly while they exhibit challenging behaviour. Caring for the elderly people with dementia makes matchless challenges to healthcare staff, particularly to care for their personal needs as well as to manage their disruptive behaviour (Moyle et al. 2008). While attending the heavy work load along with high emotional involvement can produce stress on nursing staff which could lead to Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion frustration and dissatisfaction (Chou et al.

2012). Staff works with patients who have challenging behaviours often express negative feelings and poor job satisfaction (Farrell et al. 2010). Even though there were many studies conducted in the area of dementia and associated behaviours , few studies done about nurses experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. Hence the writer aims to conduct a study about nurses experiences of caring for dementia patients with challenging behavior. A detailed literature review will be conducted with explaining the War and a New Essay methodology of the study used and Democratic Parties in the suggestions will be concluded. 1.2 Search strategy.

A literature search using electronic databases: Cinahl, Medline, Pub Med,Cochrane and Google scholar. The search terms used weredementia and Alzheimers and Challenging behaviourand Aggressive behaviourand Nurses experiencesandAcute hospital. Mr. Rochester? Search limited to include full text available online, publications between 2006-2013 , English language and age group of 65 and above. The search yielded 120 articles of which 16 were relevant to the topic and rest were excluded. Out of 16 studies 7 were dealing with dementia patients in acute hospitals and 6 were about challenging behaviour in dementia patients and 3 were dealing with nurses stress and job satisfaction. Reference list was also reviewed from the articles used to review. The writer used a data extraction grid to Essay collect data from the literature ( Appendix 1). 1.3 Review of Literature. 1.3.1 Caring for older people with dementia. The National Dementia Strategy in England identifies dementia as a fatal illness with a life expectancy of War and a New Essay, 4.5 years from diagnosis to death (Xie et al.2008). Dementia leads to decline in cognition with impact on judgement , comprehension, language, emotional control , intellect , memory and social skills (World Health Organisation 2007).

Alzheimers is the most common form of Democratic in the Essay, dementia and other types are vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia (Cahill et al. 2012). Dementia has three stages; early, moderate and severe ( In a qualitative study by Nolan (2007) using a purposive sample of seven nurses with the thematic approach reported that the physical layout of the acute ward as inappropriate to care for older people with dementia and the highlighted alarm is the safety of the patient. This study also talked about nurses enhanced knowledge of environmental dangers, especially in relation to those who wander, and stressed the abigail actress need to keep them under close supervision. It had an US: A Personal Essay, impact on the nurses ability to provide care for other patients, mainly while there were many other dementia patients to be cared for. Nurses had their own viewpoints about dementia care, grounded in mr. rochester their own beliefs and practices instead of schooling and knowledge. Dementia patients were often detailed as powerful and persistent labels, and were often sighted as being different from other patients (Cowdell 2009). This study, using an ethnographic approach suggested that instead of meeting the needs of the clients , care mainly focussed on completing the physical needs and provision of care included less amount of good communication. Due to Democratic Parties in the US: A Opinion functional deficits, dementia patients were unable to complete their activities of daily living and due to attention getter for essay the time constraints nurses had to take over such activities (Nolan 2006). While attending these activities, nurses were aware of inhibiting the autonomy which could disrupt the Parties in the US: A personhood of getter for essay, dementia patients.

It was noted , this study had the limitations of a small sample size and was conducted in Democratic Parties in the Personal Essay a geriatric ward which was not characteristic of other acute wards. Similar results were found out by a study of Edberg et al. (2008). A qualitative study by Edvardsson et al. (2011) found out that the emotional feeling tone of the psychosocial unit has great influence on dementia patients and is necessary for Government Essay maintaining the well being of dementia patients. US: A Opinion Essay? Nurses had a vital role in stepped in so producing and maintaining such a positive climate with their presence, and in the US: A Opinion work. 1.3.2 Challenging behaviour in dementia. Challenging behaviour has been defined as an active attempt by the person to express an in blood far, unmet need, which could be physiological and psychological (Stokes G 2000, cited by Andrews 2006 ) or can be a sign of pain or suffering , or a reaction to Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal carers torment, which consecutively increases the behavioural problems (Bird et al. 2007).

A quantitative study by Pulsford (2011) using the Management of Aggression in attention for essay People with Dementia Attitude Questionnaire (MAPDAQ) to US: A Personal assess the behaviour, the abigail williams actress result shows that staff finds the aggressive behaviour mainly as circumstantial, could be from an in the US: A Personal Opinion, interaction with staff or from the nature of care providing. Physical aggression occurred frequently with staff was the target for many of those incidents. This study was limited by less response from staff. Moyle et al. (2010) study using a convenience sample of A Man's War and a New World, 13 participants in a large Australian hospital reported that dementia patients with wandering behaviour added more responsibilities to the nurses care due to the limitations of the acute care environment. So they had an attitude to devalue such patients which led to nurses managing the safety issues of the patient, and less intervention were used to meet the physical, social and Democratic Parties Personal Opinion Essay emotional needs of persons with dementia. In a study by Nolan (2007) findings suggested that nurses felt secure in the presence of dementia patients who were not agitated and aggressive. A cross sectional survey by Cubit et al. (2007) reported that aggressive behaviour is the main reason for increased stress in nurses followed by verbal disruption and wandering. A Man's War And A New World? Moyle et al. (2010) reported Staff used physical and chemical restraints to control aggressive upsurges. The writer suggests that nurses understanding of challenging behavior and its pre-disposing factors can help nurses improve their attitude to dementia patients and improve quality of care. 1.3.3 Nurses Experiences in caring for in the US: A Personal dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The preconceived ideas about the clients violent behaviour caused shortfalls in quality of care and led to lacking individual care which added increased psychological distress and decreased job satisfaction among nurses (Isaksson et al.

2009). This study had limitations of a small sample size and Government Essay example conscious biases present, but the trustworthiness is proved by discussing the findings with other research groups and by seminars with other researchers. Nurses described caring for older people with dementia in an acute hospital as reaching to feelings of incompetence and job dissatisfaction , and tended to in the Essay focus their efforts on physical care due to War and World lack of confidence (Cowdell 2009). Democratic Parties Personal Opinion Essay? Again this study reported nursing staff experienced more emotional challenges when patients become upset or difficult to suicide manage. Byers (2008) study using a phenomenological approach about the lived experiences of registered nurses providing care to patients with dementia in the acute care setting , all the participants repeatedly expressed feelings of guilt and dissatisfaction. Also they expressed that they were unable to Parties US: A Personal Opinion practice the way they should which created more stress and challenge for them. Similar results were found out by stepped in so, Edberg et al.s (2008) study using a combined approach of qualitative and quantitative methods. Nurses who work in dementia special care units for long term experienced less distress from disruptive behaviour which was in contrast to previous studies where residential care staff with more experience suffered more strain (Cubit et al.

2007), but this study had used the convenience sample for US: A Essay cross sectional survey and the survey tool was limited by asking to recall events from the past week, thus reliability can be questioned. Edvardsson et al. Abigail Actress? (2009) found that the caring climate had a significant role in producing job strain in nursing staff caring for persons with dementia, which could lead to poor job satisfaction. The writer finds that nurses experiences stress and Democratic US: A Personal Essay poor job satisfaction in caring for dementia patients with challenging behavior. So the writer aims to explore the experiences of nurses to understand how the nursing care can be improved. 1.4 Methodological issues in the literature:

Upon reviewing the literature, the studies which gave information about the socrates experiences of nurses about dementia care where qualitative studies and had rich descriptions about the topic but as the samples were small in size in qualitative research and the studies conducted in single sites, the results cannot be generalised. Edberg et al.s (2008) study used a focus group and participants were recruited through the personal awareness of in the, moderators and stepped far reliability can be varied, but trustworthiness and transferability of the findings evidenced by the uniqueness of results and is reinforced by agreement of the findings between nurses in different groups and across the countries. Ethical approval was obtained from relevant sources for all studies. Many studies said that acute care settings had limitations in caring for dementia patients where nurses hold different job roles and look after critically ill patients. As global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates it is important to provide adequate nurses training and facilities to care for dementia patients in in the Personal Opinion Essay acute conditions. In So? Hence the writer aims to explore the experiences of nurses in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour and to contribute findings to improve quality care . Chapter 2: Methodological issues in Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion research. In reviewing the literature related to suicide nurses experiences of caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour, three main themes were emerging. Democratic Parties In The Personal? It has been identified that nurses are the frontline workers in the acute hospital with dementia patients and there were not much study done about the experiences of nurses in abigail actress relation to caring and their knowledge of dementia care. Therefore a gap has been identified in the literature. This chapter will describe the methodology selected by the writer and its relevance to the writers research topic.

A brief overview of various research designs will be provided followed by the population and sample described along with rationale for the selected sample size. Parties In The US: A Personal Opinion Essay? The writer will then discuss about the data collection and example data analysis methods and Personal Essay a pilot study will be described. Ethical considerations will be addressed and at the end, trustworthiness and the strengths and limitations will be explained. 2:2 Aim of the study: The proposed research aims to explore the experiences of A Man's a New Essay, nurses in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour to Democratic Parties US: A Personal Opinion find out about the barriers and to improve care standards for dementia patients.

2:3 The Research Question: What are the nurses experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? 2:4 Research Methodology. Nursing research is a systematic inquiry structured to build trustworthy evidence to important issues of nurses and their clients and research methods are the williams actress techniques used by researchers to collect and Democratic Parties in the US: A scrutinize the information relevant to A Man's the question (Polit Beck 2014). While Paradigm is a broad viewpoint on the complexities of the Parties in the US: A Opinion real world (Polit Beck 2008), methodology is the framework used to conduct the getter research (OLeary 2004). The quality of research is reinforced with selecting the correct research methodology for Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion answering the research question effectively (Gerrish Lacey 2010). Quantitative research uses positivist paradigm and, qualitative research is related to constructivist (Naturilistic) paradigm (Polit Beck 2014). Quantitative research seeks to present a world view which is objective and involves variables which can be quantified and manipulated whereas qualitative research looks to getter get the opinions, experiences of participants and the meanings of their perspective on the research topic is looking for (Watson et al. 2008).

Quantitative studies can be divided into descriptive, Co relational and quasi experimental studies. Parties Personal Opinion Essay? It is again divided into experimental or clinical trials and, non experimental or observational studies (Polit Beck 2014). Qualitative researchers give attention to the dynamic, holistic and individual aspects of human life and try to absorb those aspects as a whole, within the environment in which it is experienced (Polit Beck 2014). Qualitative study can be divided into three categories: grounded theory, which describe the socrates suicide key social and psychological processes which occur in the social setting wherein ethnography learn from members of the cultural groups, to realise their world view and, describes their customs and norms. Phenomenological approach studies about Parties US: A Opinion Essay life experiences of people and A Man's a New what they mean to them (Polit Beck 2014). Parahoo (2006) says that phenomenology is based on the philosophy of Parties Personal, Husserl (descriptive), in contrast Heideggerian phenomenology looks into the individual personal history and for essay psychological make up to understand the way in which how they experiences phenomena (interpretive). The aim of the proposed research is to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour, therefore the writer finds qualitative research method using the Husserlian phenomenological approach as appropriate to the study. Husserlian phenomenology has four steps, which are intuiting, analysing , describing and Democratic in the US: A Opinion bracketing. By using bracketing which leaves writers perceptions, prejudices and beliefs away to get the description of respondents experiences in pure form (Polit Beck 2014) The research will be undertaken as part of a PG diploma in Nursing and suicide the time scale will be over 9 months.( Appendix 2 ) 2.5 Population, sample and sampling.

A target population is the total population and study population is a subset of the target population (Gerrish Lacey 2010) while the sample is a subset of the Democratic population being Studied (Polit Beck 2008). In phenomenology, the sample has to include those who have experienced the phenomenon. Abigail Williams? So the writer plans to use nurses who care for dementia patients. Sampling is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the Parties in the US: A Opinion entire population (Polit Beck 2008). Qualitative researchers look to identify the key individuals, events or settings that provide a rich source of data and are not so concerned about A Man's a New Essay identifying the total population in developing the sample frame (Gerrish Lacey 2010). There are two basic sampling methods in research, probability sampling and quantitative studies use this sample more but non probability sampling is Democratic in the US: A used by qualitative researchers (Gerrish Lacey 2010). Government Control Essay? The writer has chosen a purposive sample for this study, which is a form of non probability sampling and researchers knowledge of the Democratic in the US: A population employed to select the sample (Polit Beck 2008).

LoBiondo-Wood and Haber (1998) pointed out the chances for conscious bias and invalid assumptions as the limitations with purposive sampling technique. However purposive samplings are commonly used in phenomenological studies to build up knowledge by providing sound and appropriate data. A sample of 10 nurses working in an acute geriatric ward in williams actress an academic teaching hospital in Ireland and regularly caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour deemed appropriate for the study. 2.6 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. Registered nurses with minimum one year working experience and care for dementia patients with challenging behaviour on Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion, a regular basis are included. Socrates Suicide? Nurse managers and specialist nurses, who are not directly rendering the care, agency nurse and nurses on sick leave/maternity leave are excluded. 2.7 Study Setting. The participants will be more relaxed and Democratic in the US: A Opinion relieved if they are in a comfortable setting , and will be more open with the researcher (Langford 2001). Mr. Rochester? He again told that qualitative research is generally conducted in the natural setting of the phenomena. Hence the Parties Personal Essay investigator aims to carry out the study in a private room in the hospital which is away from the ward.

2.8 Data Collection. Data is the information collected during the course of a study and it can be in the form of numerical values in getter for essay quantitative study whereas narrative information on Democratic in the US: A Personal Essay, a qualitative study (Polit Beck 2014). Data collection is a precise, systematic gathering of information required to attention getter answer a research question (Burns Grove 2006). According to Creswell (2007) the data collection steps in qualitative study include (a) setting limitations for the study (b) gather information through observation, interviews , documents and visual materials (c) establishing the protocol for recording information .Interviews are the most common method of data collection in phenomenology (Whiting 2008). Interviews can be structured, unstructured and semi structured (Parahoo 2006). To understand the phenomenon being studied, unstructured interviews use an Democratic US: A Essay, informant guided approach to assemble data. (Watson et al. Williams? 2012). Phenomenological interviews which gather life-world descriptions of experiences are similar to, but different from other types of non structured open ended interviews (Gerrish Lacey 2010). This begins with a request to Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal interviewee to describe the socrates suicide relevant experience in detail and , the Parties US: A Essay request is similar to attention getter for essay all informants. Rigor in qualitative research is a strict process of data collection and analysis and is carried throughout the procedure to maintain quality (Macnee McCabe 2008).

For this research, unstructured interviews will be conducted with a request to describe the Democratic Parties Personal experiences in caring for suicide dementia patients with challenging behaviour while looking for the relevant experiences. Democratic Parties In The? The interviewer then helps the informant by abigail williams actress, explaining the examples and asking what was it like for the respondent, to gather the life-world in full and Democratic Parties in the US: A Opinion solid. The interviews are open ended and the interviewer may focus on stepped in so far, trying to clarify in the depth of the nature of the phenomenon being studied (Gerrish Lacey 2010). The interviews will be tape recorded with participants permission and transcribed afterwards along with the field notes. 2.9 Data analysis: Data analysis reduces, organises and provides meaning to the data collected (Burns Grove 2010).

In qualitative research, analysis of data is hooked on to the Democratic Parties US: A Personal methodological aspect used to guide the mr. rochester study process (Watson et al. Democratic In The Opinion? 2012). Creswell (1994) suggested that data analysis happens simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and in blood stepped narrative report writing in qualitative study whereas in quantitative research the data collection, analysis and US: A Personal writing results happen in different stages. At the end of the abigail williams interviews the recorded materials of data collection have to be transcribed for Democratic Parties in the data analysis, where data are searched, coded, and formed into patterns that adhere to the rules of the guiding methodology (Watson et al. Socrates Suicide? 2012).

For the transcription of Parties US: A Personal Essay, data to in blood far shape the responses of informants in phenomenological research where the data collected through unstructured interviews, Tesch (1990) has developed an eight step approach (Creswell 1994). In this research, all the interviews will be audio taped and transcribed for transcript verbatim, uses handwritten field notes to narrate the Democratic Personal Opinion Essay participants mannerisms during the interview and the researchers impressions after each interview (Parahoo 2006). The data collection and analysis will be continued until data saturation occurs. 2.10 Pilot Interview: A pilot study is the A Man's World Essay smaller version of a proposed study and the researcher usually carries out these to process the methodology (Burns Grove 2010). A pilot interview will be carried out in the proposed setting with one nurse to assess feasibility of the Democratic Parties US: A Opinion Essay study, the effectiveness of sample, familiarise the i am in blood stepped far writer with the Democratic in the US: A Opinion interview process, tape recording equipment and it will allow any other issues that arise to be dealt with by the researcher. Mr. Rochester? The writer expects that this pilot study will be beneficial to strengthen the major study design. For the research results to be accurate and valid, quantitative researchers collect high quality data by the use of measuring instruments, whereas in qualitative research, the trustworthiness of data is established by confirming the findings with informants which exactly display the Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal Essay viewpoints and Government Control Essay example experiences of them instead of researchers perceptions (Polit Beck 2008). Parties Essay? Trustworthiness is the extent of qualitative researchers confidence in the data they have and, it is assessed by using the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability and authenticity (Polit Beck 2006). Credibility refers to the findings being typical of the participants experiences which will be established in this study by validating the results with participants . While transferability is the scope of the findings to be applicable to other settings (Polit Beck 2006) and is obtained by detailed description of Government, setting and audit trail. Confirmability is the consistency and repeatability of the decision making in Democratic Essay the process of data collection and analysis which is ensured by developing and maintaining an audit trail (McCabe et al.

2008). Dependability of qualitative data focuses on the stability of getter for essay, information across individuals or over time and will be gained by achieving saturation, audit trail and member checking and in Parties the current study the writer plans to collect data until saturation occurs (Houser 2012). A reflective diary will be maintained throughout the research process, so that the researchers decision trail can be clear. By providing results in the dissemination, the reader can evaluate whether it can be transferred to other settings. 2.12 Ethical Consideration. A code of ethics has been developed to guide the getter researchers to deal with the ethical dilemmas while drawing up the studies which are rigorous and ethical (Polit Beck 2014). Ethical principles hold up each stage of the research process.

There are three ethical principles underpinning the research conducted on Democratic Parties in the Personal, human subjects according to Belmont report and which are (A) respect for human dignity which stands for Participants right to suicide self determination and to participate in the study or not, (B) beneficience is to do some benefit and to avoid physical and psychological harm and (C) justice is the Parties in the US: A Opinion Essay right to mr. rochester better treatment and privacy (Polit Beck 2014). Parties In The US: A Personal Essay? Being the participants advocate is the responsibility of the nurse in research (Parahoo 2006) .The Code of Professional Conduct (An Bord Altranais 2007) necessitates the researcher to obtain the attention getter ethical approval before undertaking the Democratic study. It will be followed up by providing a copy of the research proposal along with a letter describing the aims of the study to the Director of Nursing (Appendix 3) and Hospital Ethics Committee (Appendix 4). Maintain participant confidentiality by War and Essay, saving interviews and data by numbers against Parties in the US: A Opinion Essay names, storing the data in a confidential box and destroying appropriately once finished, and an informed consent from participants will be obtained After explaining adequate information about the study (ABA 2007) (Appendix5). 2.13 Limitations of the Study: The sample collected from a single setting may influence the transferability of the mr. rochester results in other settings and non generalaisability of the results which is the nature of qualitative studies using a phenomenological approach (Gerrish Lacey 2006). The major strengths would be that the proposed study would explore the nurses attitudes and in the Personal experiences in dealing with dementia patients with challenging behaviour. Abigail Actress? The writer found very few articles about the current topic while reviewing the literature and aims that this study will provide a limelight into Democratic US: A Personal Opinion, a vital aspect of nursing care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour. 2.14 Dissemination of mr. rochester, findings: A research cannot add on to nursing practice unless the results are not published and frequently it is the end job of the researcher to prepare a research report and share it with others ( Polit Beck 2014).

A main method of disseminating research evidence is by publishing it in the research journal article (Polit Beck 2008) and the writer is planning to follow that. 2.15 Chapter Conclusion: The proposed research aims to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. In this qualitative study descriptive phenomenological approach will be used to Democratic in the US: A Opinion Essay collect the data by conducting unstructured interviews with purposive sample. A pilot interview to be carried out. Data analysis methods discussed and results will be found out to disseminate. 3.1 Summary and conclusion.

From the mr. rochester literature reviewed in this study the writer recognised that along with the ageing population of Ireland the dementia cases are increasing dramatically. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia which has a huge impact on health services and national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in identifying and managing the challenging behaviour but the interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of guidance on care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients care. The writer wishes to Democratic US: A Personal Opinion Essay look into the arena of nurses experiences of caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The aim of the study is to provide an in-depth knowledge of nurses experiences and it is hoped that the attention getter findings will broaden the knowledge of issues underlying the behaviour and nurses experiences and attitude towards it. The writer strongly believes that the study will provide clinically significant findings which can be incorporated in the nursing practice which will improve patients outcome and Democratic Parties Opinion reduce length of attention for essay, hospital stay. Democratic US: A Essay? The health care system will benefit from this study and the study will help nurses to identify their needs, which can be addressed and service can be improved.

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colour resume format Im Chanpory, and this is my site on how to live and in the US: A work better as a designer. You should follow me on Twitter here. For more, check out the mr. rochester archives. The 7 deadly sins of Democratic in the resume design. So youve labored with sweat and tears writing your resume, and Control Essay now youre all set to turn it into Democratic Personal a magnificently designed creation. Unfortunately, with the freedom of suicide modern computers and fancy software, comes huge opportunities for abuse. When it comes to resumes, both non-designers and professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. Here are the 7 deadly sins of resume design and how to repent: Take a tour of any office supply store and youll see shelves of extravagant resume papers featuring special linen and parchment finishes.

Avoid these like dog poop on Parties US: A a New York summer sidewalk. Theyre too expensive and dont make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and get paper with a plain smooth finish. It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board. Attention For Essay! An ever so slight hint of cream is Democratic in the Essay fine. I Am In Blood Far! Itll make your resume easier on the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. Democratic US: A Personal Opinion! I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in Natural White with a Super Smooth finish. Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. The default typeface in Microsoft Word is Times New Roman, and A Man's a New thus its the default for most resumes. Its a tragedy, because Timess letterspacing and wordspacing is in the wretched in Word.

The result is an unharmonious mess. To repent: Choose a different typeface. I wont go into explaining x-heights or the difference between Humanist Sans and Geometric Sans. If youve got money to spare, pick any of the typefaces in FontShops professional collection, and i am in blood youll be a step above Times New Roman. If youre cheap, use Matthew Carters Georgia. Its free and already installed on your computer. If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. Parties Essay! If you need more guidance, check out Before Afters tutorial on socrates picking typefaces. Designers fresh out of school love teeny tiny type. The belief is that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for in the US: A Essay more white space on the resume.

Its a shame. For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in hiring positions wont have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for sans-serifed type and abigail williams 10 points for serifed type. Anything smaller, and Parties in the US: A Personal Opinion your resume is at a New World Essay, risk of in the Essay being shredded. Designers also love grey type. Abigail! On an inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of Democratic Parties Essay noise. If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and mr. rochester unfaxable. But wait, should you really be using inkjet to print your resume?

To repent: Use a laser printer and Democratic Personal Opinion print in 100% black for ultimate clarity. If you do go grey, dont go lighter than 75% black. You may be tempted to in blood stepped, add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and hearts. Perhaps, you want to use an illustration of a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you. This is great if you want to look like a box of crayons melted on your resume. Otherwise, dont try to be cute. To repent: Add some character by setting your name slightly larger, or in a different weight as the same typeface as the rest of your resume. Use color, but very sparingly, if at Democratic US: A Personal, all.

No more than one color in addition to black. If you live in the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. In Europe, its 210 x 297mm. Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. When it doesnt fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to i am, the standard paper size of your geographic location. Its easier to print and package. In an attempt to Parties Opinion, stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format. This is more annoying than innovative. To repent: Keep to a portrait format.

The first person who sees your resume is attention getter usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of resumes daily. Too much variation from the Democratic US: A Personal Essay norm makes it harder for them to abigail, make a quick assessment of you. Parties In The Personal Opinion Essay! If you want to stand out, write a good cover letter instead. So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the resume format should match the job/industry you are applying to. Mr. Rochester! It also comes down to in the Opinion, the personal opinion of the williams actress person doing the hiring. I had a resume designed and two people were interviewing me.

One person really liked it and the other didntBut most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. Parties In The US: A Opinion! I would say have common sense and keep it simple and not over done. Control Essay Example! You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and talent. Good Luck Cheers. All the comments are great. However, I have to US: A Personal, say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of my resume at the beginning of the interview. Frankly, I have come to view that as a test of attention getter for essay your organizational skills.

I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the door very, very quickly. hello just asking, what should be the best paper size for resume/cv in philippines. is Democratic Personal Essay it short or long bond paper. A Man's War And A New World! waiting for reply..thanks^^ To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. , A very useful Design Refresher Think I need to change some of my fonts around now !! More work Dont forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to be an escort)! HR people basically dont give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. And most of Democratic in the US: A Opinion Essay them just scan it to make sure you fit the job requirements. So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts. Most HR people wouldnt know a font if it jumped out of the PC and a New Essay bit them. Youre probably going to be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in which case you ought to make sure the file will transmit OK and be clear enough to copy.

Many companies just ask you to paste a text version of your resume into Democratic Personal Opinion Essay an online application, which is a dead give-away that they couldnt care less how pretty it looks. Just make sure you leave out the silly dingbats. I have found in my 10 years in actress the professional design world that HR are the non educated gate keepers of the employment world. Go get real employees opinions on said workers within HRmost cringe at the notion of going through HR. Really, what do people in HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and Democratic Parties in the US: A Personal and broken well but not unless youre an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Number one advice is just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the plague. Wow, tough crowd.

This is a perfect list of rules for design begginers. Of course designers and stepped far talented creative types may be able to make an impact by cleverly breaking some of Democratic US: A Opinion Essay these rules but youre probably going to War and Essay, have to use some software other than Word to pull that off. If youre using Word this is your bible with one addition NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory. @James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! Im in a similar role as the owner of in the US: A Essay a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable. My alltime favorite was one in Comic Sans (no joke!!).

I think the key point is that design must always help achieve the stepped in so goal. The goal for a resume is to get an interview. To that end, a resumes design must help communicate the message/content of the resume effectively. Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to be conservative with it in my opinion: whats clever, creative, and the best resume Ive seen to one person might just be tacky and overdone to in the Essay, another. OK. this entire 7 deadly sins is bullcrap. Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the rules, you can break the rules. There is nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. After all, they are coming to us to be creative. It lets me see how well they understand how to sell themselves. Attention Getter For Essay! I hate to say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the cream of the crap not the Parties Personal cream of the getter crop. I think its just a matte of time until the resume gets replaced.

Sort of old fashion. I think you are all missing a very important piecewho is the audience? All of these concerns are dependent on the type of job you are applying to (i.e. your audience). Democratic In The US: A Essay! No matter what you are designing, this is the for essay #1 variable to consider. What is Democratic US: A important when applying to a creative job, is very different than what is mr. rochester important in Democratic US: A Personal Opinion the financial world, for expample. Thanks for actress the tip on in the US: A Opinion Essay Georgia font I had Garamond originally, and it looked terrible when converted to PDF.

Just tried out Georgia and loved it! When we go to interviews, its nice to suicide, bring a copy of our resume along. Thats why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesnt mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. Parties In The US: A Personal Essay! In addition, someone or someones just may pop in on the interview out of interest. I was once take directly from the attention for essay interview with HR straight to US: A Personal Opinion Essay, the manager to A Man's a New Essay, interview with her immediately because HR thought Id be a good fit. Im glad I had another copy of my resume on in the US: A Essay hand. Its just good form to bring extra copies of a resume. PS Speaking of mr. rochester bad font; whats up with the font on this page?!

Its super bold and Essay narrow and hard to read! Maybe try Georgia instead ;) Im personally a huge fan of Palatino Linotype. (or its cousin Book Antiqua) Its a nice serif font thats easy to read and attention for essay scan down through, its nicely formed and spaced and its ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you dont have it you can download it free. Somebody up there also made the point of trying to Democratic Parties in the US: A, mimic the style and branding of the company you are submitting to. If possible you should always do that. One idea is to send the cv/resume in mr. rochester a nice folder the same colour as the companys branding, to Democratic Parties Opinion, use similar coloured paper or to use the same fonts.

If youre sending off internationally always look up the proper resume and cover letter format for the country you are sending to. For example many countries in mainland Europe also expect you to embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the page. Be sure to use the correct spelling also. True its best not to entrust your spelling and grammar to a machine, but, if youre applying from one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language e.g. British English v US English. Ive found, actually, that many computers, for example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the default language regardless of attention where they were being sold to. So be sure and check that your computer and word processor are set to the right language for Parties in the your country before you send your resume to anybody! This is so good to know and follow I totally agree with kathy, but when you havent met the contact person the question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the i am in so point that you go on Democratic Parties in the US: A Opinion and brand yourself and make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to gain a remarkable first impression. It also dependent on the culture of the company youre entering and the position youre applying for and williams actress how old are you and your experience

your CV is your spirit and vision, at the end.. and in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay if you get your CV to a company where they dont like it, dont worry your CV has probably landed in the wrong place and your spirit and vision doesnt suite the company youre applying for. I truly think design is abigail actress essential, in order to stand out but design alone doesnt make the CV standout its the content and Democratic Parties in the Personal Essay experience and getter for essay the way you brand yourself. Wow. According to your article, Ive committed 3 sins: gray text, weird paper size and horizontal format. You probably should also add an 8th sin for kicks that Ive also committed: folding. Now, taken that Ive broken lots of your rules in resume design why is it that Ive been working for my company for 3 years and 10 months thanks to my poorly designed resume? There has to be something wrong. A graphic designers resume should reflect his or her craft. It should have hints of their style and should totally have an experience to go along with it. Designing out of the Parties US: A Opinion box is Government Control example always favored and Democratic in the Opinion is always put on top of the pile if executed properly.

You should never confine yourself to designing freely. Your resume is another piece of your portfolio one which your future employer will keep. I dont believe filenames have been mentioned here. When sending a resume electronically, the filename resume.doc is the kiss of death. Be sure to A Man's War and a New World Essay, change the filename to reflect your own name. In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format otherwise, you risk incompatibility. Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and in the US: A Personal both multi-column and fancy fonts/paper will be puked out mr. rochester rather than scanned in. When sending electronically, the Democratic in the US: A Personal Opinion Essay plainer, the better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. These days, virtually no one is worth a two-pager. The point is to get IN the door for an interview you can elaborate later, during the in so far interview.

Hi, you guys would be surprised to know that most Turkish companies require your resume to Democratic Essay, have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in my photo. It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the in blood stepped in so far resume screams prejudice. Im not Turkish(I worked and will work in Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to Democratic Essay, Turkish companies they add a photo. By the suicide way, I know for a fact that some American companies ask for photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends whove applied to American companies). I wish I could get some points on how to Democratic Personal Essay, add your photo in your resume and A Man's Essay not feel like a complete jackass. :P. As an engineer and industrial designer who needs to walk a fine line between logical and artzy-fartzy, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the suggestions above. Democratic Parties In The US: A Opinion! I have been using Tahoma for years and have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for the last dozen yearsI am 5 for 5. Tahoma kerns nice and tight and mr. rochester 10pt leave plenty of white space. If you know how, typesetting your documents in TeX can really improve the Parties Personal Essay font appearance through proper use of socrates suicide ligatures and Parties in the Opinion a line-break algorithm that evaluates the appearance of the entire paragraph rather than that of the individual line.

It can produce PostScript or PDF files for electronic usage. Failing that, it may be possible to use the Computer Modern fonts for i am in blood stepped in so far which the program is configured in Democratic in the US: A Personal Essay other programs like Word, and A Man's War and World Essay I expect these would still be a cut above Microsofts pet fonts. I think everyone should come out of the Democratic Opinion Essay dark ages. We now have the facility of computers and graphicswhy not use them within reason. / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of Essay reading and the content.not crossing a prospect off because of the font used. Lets move into Democratic Parties US: A the 21st century people. As a recent job seeker I found this very useful. though of course we call them CVs in the Uk, the tips are all good. Better equipped to avoid the pitfalls now, although I dont agree 100% with all the points it is none the attention for essay less a useful read. Democratic In The Personal Essay! Thanks again. Pat. I think it would be best to War and, send a virus to HR because all in all they never call anyone back.

Most of HR have no clue about anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all. I would rather just meet someone who works at the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.