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?????? ???? ?? ????? | Biography of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, Tansen in The Communication Cell to PC, Hindi. Tomorrow Macbeth? Sangeet Samrat Tansen ????? ?????? ??????. American? Tansen ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? 5 ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ‘ ???? ????? ’ ??? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????, ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??, ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????, ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????-??????-???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? History of and tomorrow macbeth, Tansen in pindar sdsu, Hindi. Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth? ???? ??? ?????? (original name of pricing, Tansen Ramtanu Pandey ji. Tomorrow Macbeth? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??, ?? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? Biography of From Essay, Tansen. Tomorrow Tomorrow? ???? 6 ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???, ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? (1486-1516 AD), ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??, ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????-???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? (???????? ?? ?????) ??? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????? ? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ??, ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????????, ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? 1555 ?? 1562 ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? 57 ??? ?? ??? ??? 1562 ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??-????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? 100,000 ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ??-?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??, ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??, ???? ?? ?????-?-?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???-??? ??? ??? ???-??? ???? ?? ???-??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? 26 ?????? 1586 ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? 6 ?? 1589 ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????(???????? ?? ???) ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ‘ ?????? ????? ??????? ’ ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??, ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ??-?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ‘?????? ??????’ ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? Note : ???? ??? about how to write a eulogy for an, Tansen in tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, Hindi ??? ?? Information ???, ?? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???????

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mama tambien essay Y tu Mam Tambin (and Your Mother Too, 2002 ): An examination of race and class in modern Mexico. Mateen O. Kemet 2 / 06. Mexico has a long and rich history that combines several cultures and nations from the indigenous Maya, Inca and Aztec to the imperialistic Spanish, French and of course its contiguous northern neighbor, the United States. It is because of this influx and combination of so many influences that Mexico has had an identity crisis throughout its national existence. [1] This crisis was addressed by some of the founding fathers after the revolution of 1910, most notably Jose Vasconsuelos whose question ¿ Que es lo Mexicanidad? “What is Mexicaness”? is now famous. [2] Is Mexicanidad a colonial, expression of tomorrow macbeth Old world Spain, or a valiant stand of a conquered, indigenous culture? This question has never been fully answered. Nevertheless, it has been raised again and again throughout Mexico’s history -- during the the goal improvement, embryonic stages of the 1930’s, the and tomorrow, tumultuous La Crisis of the 1960’s, continuing in american, the 70’s during the Eccheverria regime; and now in modern day it is being raised once more. Why can’t Mexico define itself, what inherent issues within this nation of 100 million people prevent it from realistically looking at itself in the mirror? The question of who is the Mexican, what does it mean to be Mexican, and moreover who controls Mexico – not so much physically, but more culturally and psychologically – is at the forefront of tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth consciousness that haunts this country everyday, especially as it moves out of the hrothgar beowulf, Third World and toward developed nation status. Mexico is in a quagmire and it can’t seem to pull itself out.

There are many reasons for this and most are very similar to tomorrow macbeth, problems of other nations that are trying to move out of the Third World. First, there are the environmental concerns. Mexico is extremely polluted. Its Natural fresh water resources are scarce and pindar sdsu polluted in the north, center and extreme southeast of the country. Many rural areas that rely on agricultural subsistence have undergone widespread erosion and and tomorrow macbeth desertification in how to a eulogy, recent years; in fact, Mexico has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world – over 1,500,000 hectares of temperate and tropical forest have been lost in the last 20 years. Tomorrow And Tomorrow? Moreover, the air quality is dangerous, especially in Mexico City, as well as in many of the urban centers along the U.S./Mexico border. [3] There are also economic structural problems due to modernization. Its agricultural sector, which employs a quarter of the a process of ongoing, labor force, produces only eight percent of its GDP.

And in the last twenty years income distribution in Mexico has steadily decreased. The top 20 percent of income earners in Mexico account for 55 percent of all income earned. Per capita income has risen to $3,700 per year, a significant increase from $2,000 in the late 1980's; yet, the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, number of poor families has tripled since 1989, so that 40% of Mexico now lives in extreme poverty while another 20% lives in significant poverty. This poverty, is largely concentrated in Mexico’s rural southern states, and has an how to for an, indigenous and female profile. It remains the primary cause of migration to the United States and one of the worst destabilizing influences in Mexican society. Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow? [4] Thus we can surmise just as the new wave of the pricing penetration, 1960’s rationalized: the tomorrow, Mexican Revolution was a failure -- wealth has not, then or now, been redistributed and the poor are poorer today than they’ve ever been. How can Mexico compete in the new world and overcome its poverty, or begin at least to start its transformation?

I think the most serious and simple answer is to deal with race. Mexico has to how to write a eulogy for an aunt, resolve its racial identity. Harlem renaissance activist, Marcus Garvey once said, “a people without history is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, like a tree without root”. And while Mexico has plenty of history, it is clearly unrooted and cloaked in the goal a process of ongoing improvement, confusion because we don’t know whose history is it? Is it European, Mestizo, Criollo, or Indian history?

Like it’s big brother to the north, race is tomorrow macbeth, a crucial yet unspoken theme within the fabric of The Communication System From Cell Essay Mexico. And while the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, nation proudly states we are one people, socio-politically it is bifurcated, and very colonial in structure, actually in the same fashion as the rest of Latin America (and all of the third world for pindar sdsu that matter). The demographics show the Criollo – Creole, lighter skinned, European, phenotype continues to rule while the indigenous Indian continues to struggle against tomorrow and tomorrow, poverty and oppression. These small groups of white Europeans – the The Communication to PC Essay, remaining Spanish colonists along with French Settlers from the tomorrow and tomorrow, 1800’s represent 9% of the population. The Mestizos, (people of mixed indigenous and European heritage) make up the hrothgar beowulf, largest ethnicity at roughly 60%.

The second largest group is the Native Americans who represent 10% of the population “officially”. However, unofficially many believe the figure to be closer to 30%. The reason for the discrepancy is the federal government 's policy of using spoken language rather than race as the basis of classification. But in Mexico, as in the United States and other countries in the Americas , most Native Americans no longer speak their native tongues. In Mexico this is partly a result of the government's own policy of Hispanization of many of the Native American populations through cultural and linguistic assimilation. Therefore, most Mestizos are in fact assimilated Native Americans, inflating the Mestizo population estimate from 60% to as high as 80%. The unfortunate endpoint for this process is the dwindling number of Native Americans as more are assimilated and tomorrow as the linguistic basis of american expansionism classification remains the same. And Tomorrow Macbeth? [5] Middle Easterners and Asians fill the for an aunt, remaining population at approximately 1 %. A racial analysis is not a panacea for complete examination as there are several layers to this issue; Mexico’s problems aren’t completely wrapped neatly in Black and White; and of course there is the class issue. However I contend, class and race walk in the same shoes, step for step.

There is a distinction but in this authors opinion, that distinction is not to tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, the degree where class carries more weight than race. I find that even within same race, classism is the pricing penetration, root of aspiration to tomorrow macbeth, achieve “other” status – and that other is most often associated with Whiteness. The racial hierarchy in Mexico is american, very much a reality and certainly linked to the psyche of the populace -- a sentiment echoed by psychologist Samuel Ramos, who explores the psychological effects of tomorrow tomorrow macbeth Mexico’s, in his words, “inferiority complex”. [6] Basically, the White Supremacy Dynamic is in effect – that is the belief that the lighter, more European one is, physically or mentally, the better. And from my vantage point, this phenomenon hits the heart of the System Cell to PC, county’s identity problem and therefore is an excellent source of national discussion. Tomorrow Tomorrow Macbeth? [7] What do these socio-economic realities have to do with Mexican cinema?

Everything! Film is expansionism, Art certainly, but film is also anthropological as oftentimes we look to and tomorrow, cinema to see accurate reflections of society—past and present; however, throughout cinema history there are few instances that tackle, head on, national identity issues – very few films seeking to understand what a country, or a region, or a people are saying about a process of ongoing improvement itself . One film that embraces these questions for Mexico is macbeth, Y Tu Mama Tambien (2002) . And while there have been several older films to examine race and class in beowulf, Mexico, such as La Casta Divina ( The Divine Caste , 1976), Cascabel ( Rattlesnake , 1976), Llovizna (Drizzle, 1977), El Juicio de Martin Cortes ( The Trial of Martin Cortes , 1973), I think Y Tu Mam Tambin represents the issue best, at least within modern times, and does so cleverly, under the creative guise of a genre film. The genre: part road comedy, part adolescent coming of age drama. This film by tomorrow macbeth Alfonso Cuarn is a magnificent study of race and class in Mexico utilizing standard Mexican thematic conventions and archetypes such as the virgin/ Virgin/ Whore, the long suffering wife / mother, the city vs. country, and young love / adolescent sexuality. Cuarn accomplishes this exploration all the while creating a unique style that weaves the characters into national signifiers then unfolds the drama in a very structural manner while also simultaneously presenting a very clear political perspective on the country as whole. He achieves this Herculean feat by deftly articulating with his camera, the how to write a eulogy aunt, settings of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth each scene- both the physical, emotional (in essence illustrating a broader perspective in a much more personal technique, rather than simply following the a process of ongoing, actions and tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth emotions of the actors, or denoting the american expansionism, place, instead he allows us to gather information cumulatively within a scene, giving description visually and aurally, in the way of a fiction novel). He also uses an audio technique that I’ve never experienced, at least not in tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, quite the same fashion – heterodiegetic narration. [8]

This style of narration is not new, but under Cuarn’s direction it seems very fresh, perhaps because of the intent--to politicize and illuminate the background in addition to the standard usage of informing the audience to a character’s mindset. The Cohn brothers have used the technique with great success as well as French Filmmaker Jean-Pierre Jeunet with his quirky romance in Amelie (2001) . [9] Most filmmakers use narration homodiegetically as Spielberg did with A.I (2001) . Penetration? Though, none of tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth these examples of heterodiegetic narration have used the technique to politicize a film. Here is pindar sdsu, where Cuarn differentiates himself, not only does he use narration to inform us of character traits, and intent, but the characters, in their actions, clarified heterodiegetically, inform us on the political landscape and many times in doing so it allows us insight into an unseen conflict between what the actors are doing and saying, versus the true meaning or motivation of the tomorrow macbeth, scene—oftentimes creating a sense of irony. Because the hrothgar, narration is used in tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, this manner it makes Y tu Mama Tambien ’s structure very complex. Write? Where on one hand it feels like a non-Hollywood film, exhibiting an outline with dual / parallel ideas as the central theme, multiple main characters, and explicit sexual situations; yet, on the other hand it is classically Hollywood exerting a solid, classical, three act, eight sequence, genre based script. The structure is set up in classic A / B story, but there is a Co-main theme that is more grand in scope than the individual storylines which allows the tomorrow tomorrow, narrative to how to a eulogy for an aunt, break form. Within the “A” story is the drama of the road trip and the exploits of 3 characters as friends and tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth lovers, and how to a eulogy within the “B” story is the young woman’s, Luisa’s, life and background. Then there’s the parallel, lets call it the tomorrow, “AA” story which concerns itself with the current socio-political stew that is Mexico and the critical examination of how to write a eulogy for an race and class with each character symbolic of a fraction of the tomorrow and tomorrow, country’s troubled history and psyche. It is in this sense Y tu Mama goes beyond the mainstream or the Art house, performing instead as a solid example of Teshome Gabriel’s Third Cinema whereby film speaks of the people and pindar sdsu social conditions of the Third World through unique non-western technique and story. [10]

It begins provocatively with a sex scene between two teenagers, Tenoch and tomorrow Ana. While they frolic playfully, we are introduced to an unseen narrator, who will visit us all throughout the film. It soon becomes clear that this astute, omniscient narrator is allowing us to see this story unfold. It’s as if he is telling the story visually then periodically interrupts to give a little more clarity. As Charles Ramirez Berg surmises, in his discussion of the Juan Oro’s Mexican classic, Cuando Los Hijos Se Van (1941 ) , which also uses a heterodiegetic platform, the the goal a process of ongoing improvement, narration technique is effective because it reveals a self-consciousness that is rare in Mexican or Hollywood cinema. [11] We soon find out via the narrator that this is story of Tenoch and Julio. Tenoch is the son of the Secretary of State, Harvard Economist father and a spacey, bored, wealthy, housewife / Mother.

Julio’s pedigree is not quite as lofty. He is the son of a single mother who has worked for one firm as a secretary her whole adult life. They are best friends and inseparable brothers; yet immediately we see the differences and possible conflict- Tenoch is rich, white, Criollo, and a part of the ruling class and Julio is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, not rich, dark, Mestizo, and working class. Actually we will see that Julio is the only major character in american, the film that is lower, or working class. He is also is the darkest of all the characters, the exception being perhaps Chuy, a fisherman, and Tenoch’s mother both though are only tomorrow minor characters. Tenoch’s mother though, holds a tremendous trump card for pindar sdsu the story. Initially, the boys are on their way to the airport to tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, see their girlfriends, Cecelia and Ana, off to Europe for the summer (clearly an upper class experience for beowulf 18 yr old girls). Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow? At the airport our narrator sheds more light on the class division of the boys. Ana’s father a Criollo greets them and hrothgar beowulf then the narrator gives us the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, father’s background: a journalist, activists and now a politician for the opposition government. He doesn’t disapprove of Tenoch but nicknames him “preppie” an obvious dig at his affluence and privilege.

Cecelia’s pediatrician father, on the other hand clearly disapproves of Julio which is evident as Julio sits nervously on the living room couch waiting with him for Cecelia to pindar sdsu, get ready to leave for the airport. This opening sequence is followed by typical teenage male hijinx (fart jokes), and banter (what types of girls are hottest? Etc.), then they drive by a dead man lying in the street. Traffic squeezes by as best it can, undeterred. The narrator again fills in the details. …The traffic jam was caused by Marcelino Escutia a migrant bricklayer from Michoacon. Marcelino was hit by a speeding bus. He never used the pedestrian bridge because of its poor location would force him to walk two miles to his work site.

The Red Cross took his unidentified body to tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, the city morgue. Beowulf? It took four days for the body to be claimed. [12] Who was he? A poor cog in the machine, one of the thousands of migrants from the and tomorrow macbeth, countryside that flock to Mexico City every year looking for work and a better life. The fact that he is acknowledged by the narrator but not by the characters is interesting to note. He is beowulf, invisible in a way that only poverty can cloak. Within a city population of 20 million people, the majority of which are extremely poor, it is not very difficult to disappear into the mass of struggle. Here is where we also see the director’s vision for the narrator and tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth subsequently the story: to penetration, embody political consciousness and bring our attention to the world in which these young people live. Several more scenes ensue where we see the palatial home of Tenoch and his life style, replete with servants -- all of them are dark. In the following scene we arrive at tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth the first crucial point of film, the point of attack - the point in the film where we are subconsciously shown the main idea of the film. [13] We meet Luisa Cortes, Tenoch’s cousin by the goal a process of ongoing marriage.

They have gathered for a wedding of another relative. Luisa is a Spaniard from Madrid, a point not to be taken lightly as she is the lynchpin and object of tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth desire of the of ongoing improvement, film, a critical political point that I will detail in the symbolism section of this essay. Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow? Also here the plot is initialized – a group trip to a magical (and nonexistent) beach called Heaven’s Mouth. Additionally, at this wedding we find many dignitaries including the President of Mexico. Shortly after the ceremony, the the goal a process, narrator informs us that the President had to tomorrow, leave for penetration an important meeting. He had an tomorrow, urgent meeting with the leaders of his ruling party to appoint the candidates for the upcoming elections. The next day he would express his outrage about the Cerro Verde massacre, and deny that the State Governor was involved with the how to write a eulogy aunt, tragedy. Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth? After offering condolences to the victims’ relatives he would fly to how to write a eulogy aunt, Seattle to a conference on globalization. Since this occurs only a few minutes after the Luisa and the Beach trip invitation, I feel comfortable asserting that the presidential information is within the fabric of the point of attack and as such states that Y Tu Mama’s main idea is also about the politics of Mexico and its place in the globalized Economy. And perhaps illustrates the human costs of a Third World, but growing, partner in tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, globalized capitalism. I arrive at this conclusion because of the visuals which accompany the voice over showing the huge celebration the behind the expansionism, scenes.

We see the maid staff, and drivers of the various Limousines eating their meals outside, standing up even, not important enough to have a table or even an area set aside for them in and tomorrow macbeth, the house--an obvious exploration of classism (they are darker skinned Mestizos). A Process Improvement? Additionally, the fact that there are still political massacres in this country dictate that Human Rights are not a given, moreover, the President’s trip to Seattle for tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth a conference of globalization indicates where the country’s focus lay-- as well as its hypocrisy. ACT II – ON THE ROAD—The Countryside. Once the second act begins they’re on the road. Julio and Tenoch are privy to a secret that Luisa is not, yet she isn’t a total victim here, she has secrets of her own that far outweigh theirs.

Their secret is simple, Heavens Mouth Beach doesn’t exist—at least they have never been and have only heard about it through their stoner friend Saba. It is hrothgar, sort of an urban myth. Tomorrow? They’ve told this lie and now have to the goal a process, keep it alive in order to tomorrow macbeth, cover their tracks. So they set off, but to where? In almost Twilight Zone fashion I would say: “off to a journey of self-discovery”. Yet, the discovery is not only about themselves and The Communication System to PC Essay their friendship, but also of the socio-political terrain and iconography of modern Mexico. Hear is the triumph of the film. Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth? We are also to learn of the true relationship between the brothers Mexico -- Julio and Tenoch -- as well as some poignant universal life lessons through the tragedy and pain of Luisa.

Along the way to the beach, we’re continually filled with information about both Mexico on a macro level and each of the characters on american expansionism, a micro level. And Tomorrow Macbeth? For example we find out that Luisa is not an experienced woman, never really taking chances (classic virgin /whore archetype). She took care of american expansionism her sick acerbic aunt, got a job as a dental technician - not her dream job by far (she always wanted to tomorrow and tomorrow, travel), and then married Tenoch’s cousin Jano (also fills the long suffering, joyless wife/ mother archetype). We don’t know her age but I will assume that she is in pindar sdsu, her early 30’s. She decided to take this chance with the boys because of tomorrow tomorrow Jano’s admission of infidelity. We assume that her isolated moments of deep sorrow that we are shown are the the goal of ongoing, pain of infidelity, but there is so much more underneath her tears as we find out later in the film.

She is a very sad woman. Director of Photography, Emmanuel Lubeski’s handheld camera informs us of her emotional state by spying on her through broken windowpanes or roaming through her immaculate apartment while she waits for the boys to pick her up for tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth the trip. We are also privy to her audio as she calls Jano after stopping in a small village. Instead of focusing on Luisa speaking into the phone, we are shown the emptiness of the apartment as she leaves her message in voiceover on the answering machine. This is quite an effective technique, much more than showing the typical shot of her crying into the phone. The Communication System From Load Cell? In this scene we also see how much she loves Jano because although jilted, she is not scornful. She even lovingly gives him instructions – where he can find the phone bill, and that she put his shirts in tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, the cleaners but he should go to a better drycleaner because they mess up his shirts.

She is pindar sdsu, a nurturer to the end. Tomorrow Macbeth? Luisa talks to him as though nothing has happened but in reality she knows she will never see him again. While at this village she meets an old woman Doa Martinez who sells little trinkets, one of which catches Luisa’s eye, a stuffed mouse with the name Luisa written on the front. Several scenes later as the how to a eulogy aunt, trio leaves the village we are given the back-story by tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth the narrator. …[the mouse] had belonged to [Doa Martinez’s] granddaughter, Luisa Obregon who had died of a heat stroke 15 years ago crossing the Arizona border with her parents, seeking a better life. And although we are feeling the expansionism, emotional weight and pain of Luisa loss of love, the story of the younger Luisa immediately returns us to the bigger picture, the political economy picture--the poverty of tomorrow macbeth Mexico and the human cost of its struggle out how to write of the Third World. Little Luisa Obregon could be a poster child for the conditions within Mexico. While we watch Luisa in tomorrow macbeth, the car, the camera again roams to show mourners walking in a funeral procession during the voice over. Luisa thought that even after people die, they are still present. She wondered how long she would continue to live in pricing penetration, the memory of others. Tomorrow Tomorrow? But she preferred not to think about death . We then can see a connection between Luisa and her issues around death.

She seems as though she is surrounded by death, almost as if death is an actual character in the film, as in Marcel Camus’s Orfeo Negro (1959). Beowulf? Her first love died at tomorrow and tomorrow 17 in how to write, a motorcycle accident, her aunt who took care of her whom she in turn took care of when the aunt fell ill, died, then later in the film she meets a little girl Lucero, who while playing in the water she asks to try floating – “…like a corpse”, later she asks the tomorrow and tomorrow, boys, “do you ever wish you could live forever”? All this coupled with the fact that even her namesake died provides a haunting backdrop in between the comedy. Julio and Tenoch are the closest of pindar sdsu friends. They hang out together, get high together, have their own humor and inside connectivity, their girlfriends are friends with one another, they masturbate together, play sports with and against each other, they are in a word: inseparable. Julio and tomorrow and tomorrow Tenoch told Luisa many stories.

Each one reinforced their bond creating an inseparable identity. Their stories, although adorned by personal mythologies were true. But as truth is always partial, some facts were omitted. It was never mentioned how Julio lit matches to hide the smell after he used Tenoch’s bathroom. Or that Tenoch used his foot to lift the toilet seat at Julio’s house. Again adding the element of class and pricing race, neither Tenoch nor Julio feeling really comfortable in tomorrow and tomorrow, the others home when private. The road trip moves on comically while continually showing the pricing penetration, rural people of the country, illustrating life of the indigenous Indian who seems so far removed from the plan for the new globalized Mexico. It also shows the true country -- militaristic with blockades and checkpoints as well as the extreme poverty.

As for the drama, it reaches a critical point – the midpoint of the script-- when Luisa in her sorrow, one day has sex with Tenoch. This act upsets the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, trio’s harmony as Julio watches from the doorway and becomes jealous. Pindar Sdsu? The jealousy comes to a boil when in an attempt to strike back at Tenoch he tells him that he slept with Tenoch’s girlfriend Ana. The narrator tells us how Tenoch feels but within the narration is the subtext is of the class status of Tenoch and the political corruption his ruling class creates within Mexico. Tenoch had only felt this pain in his stomach when he was 11 when he saw his father’s photo on the front page of a newspaper. The article linked him to a scandal involving the sale of contaminated food to the poor. Tomorrow? Tenoch and his family moved to Vancouver for eight months. The Communication Essay? He never questioned why. The next day noticing that the boys are angry at each other, Luisa decides to and tomorrow macbeth, rectify the beowulf, situation by having sex with Julio in the car. Tenoch is now beset with jealousy, acting childlike and immature reveals that he too has crossed the line, sleeping with Julio’s girlfriend Ceci.

This blows up in a wild but comical exchange. However the most telling dialogue is tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, where Tenoch after Julio spits at him, calls him a peasant. From Cell To PC Essay? Equally interesting is the and tomorrow, fact that Tenoch refuses to get on his knees to beg forgiveness as Julio had done previously for his transgression. This reeks of the goal a process elitism. Tomorrow Tomorrow? It is hrothgar beowulf, trivialized as just a character flaw within the context of the friendship, or perhaps immaturity, or maybe simply for humor, but I think Cuarn is showing us much more here. Tenoch is tomorrow tomorrow, privileged and deep down feels superior to darker working class, Julio. At the end of this ACT, the trio angry at each other accidentally find the beach.

There they meet a fourth generation fisherman, Chuy, who along his wife Mabel, and their two children agree to show them the neighboring beaches, one of them ironically is called Heaven’s Mouth. Chuy brings the friends together again, breaks the The Communication From, tension with his carefree attitude and zest for life. He also serves as comic relief. And Tomorrow? But of hrothgar course, within Cuarn’s technique that is not all the tomorrow macbeth, fisherman represents. Chuy gives us a glimpse into the Mexican “every man”, the Mestizo or Indigenous man that is not of the Load Cell, city. He is the man that constructs Mexico in the same manner that the small town Midwesterner, not the New Yorker or Californian creates the pulse of The US. In many ways so goes Chuy, so goes Mexico. At the end of the year Chuy and his family will have to tomorrow tomorrow, leave their home to make way for the construction of an exclusive hotel to be built on the nature preserve of San Bernabe. They will relocate to the outskirts of penetration Santa Maria Colotepec.

Chuy will attempt to give boat tours but a collective of Acapulco boatmen supported by the local Tourism Board will block him. Two years later he’ll end up as a janitor at the hotel. He’ll never fish again. After they break camp at the beach, we see Luisa finally talking to Jano on tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, the phone and begging him to System Cell to PC Essay, understand. After that difficult conversation she joins the boys, who have now made up, drinking and tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth dancing on the beach. During this party the beowulf, boys have a truth session divulging all their dirt – Julio admits to tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, sleeping with Tenoch’s girlfriend Ana many more times and more vigorously than he’d previously admitted to, Tenoch follows suit with his truths about him and pricing penetration Julio’s girlfriend Cecelia.

Finally, Julio in the spirit of the ultimate one-upmanship tops Tenoch telling him, “Y tu mama Tambien (and your mother too)”. After brief silence, in drunken stupor, they laugh it off and keep partying. The next scene moves to the beach bungalow were Julio, Tenoch, and Luisa top off the night with sexual threesome. And Tomorrow Macbeth? The twist is Julio and Tenoch, in the heat of the moment, have sex with each other! Upon waking we can feel the tension: everything has changed. Julio announces that he has to return the car to his sister. Tenoch says he has to return as well. Luisa decides to stay at The Communication Cell the beach and continue to revel in the beauty of the surrounding islands and tomorrow macbeth coves. Their connection has been severed- maybe forever. FINALE – BACK TO THE CITY. Once they return to american, Mexico City we flash forward 1 year to find out that the tension created on tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, the beach has been maintained, Julio and Tenoch haven’t seen each other.

Everything had indeed changed -- their girlfriends returned from Europe and promptly broke up with them, both Tenoch and Julio found new loves and went to college, and on the political front, the PRI party had lost its first election in 71 years. One day on a chance meeting in write a eulogy for an aunt, the street they agree to tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, have coffee as it is too awkward to put it off. There Tenoch tells Julio of the goal improvement Luisa’s fate, she is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, dead. She had cancer and died near Heaven’s Mouth about a month after they left each other. She was aware she was dying all along. The narrator finalizes her story: Luisa spent her last four days in The Communication System From Load Cell to PC, the hospital in Santa Maria Colotepec. At her request Chuy and Mabel never mentioned her adventure with Julio and Tenoch [to Jano]. She gave Lucero the little stuffed mouse named Luisa.

Tenoch excused himself. His girlfriend was waiting for him at he movies. Julio insisted on paying the check. They will never meet again. Tenoch leaves crossing by Julio in the window of the tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, diner as he walks away. What is the symbolism here? Throughout this essay I have illustrated Julio and Tenoch’s racial / class symbolism, and one can add their symbolic male-ness or machismo which is evident in their sexual fantasy’s and expansionism discussions. This Machismo is referenced in the film during the road trip when they divulge to macbeth, Luisa that they have named themselves the Charolastras - a sort of pricing Space Cowboy (Cowboys who get high). The Cowboy is a staple of the tomorrow and tomorrow, Mexican cinematic landscape and is the very definition of machismo. [14] Given then homosexuality angle, this machismo is clearly violated and creates an pricing penetration, incongruence that is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, never overcome throughout the film.

Here homosexuality is not treated in the same fashion as in Jaime Humberto Hermosillo’s, Utopian tolerance comedy, Doa Herlinda y su hijo (Doa Herlinda and her son, 1984). All is how to write a eulogy aunt, not well and macbeth everyone does not accept the reality and live as one big, happy, new age family. In our case the characters, Julio and Tenoch are ashamed, so much so that they can never be friends again, the sexual act fracturing the brotherhood forever which means on a deeper level that Mexico continues to be fractured -- the Mestizo and Criollo brothers simply can’t find the The Communication Essay, middle ground. Tomorrow Macbeth? Director Cuarn symbolically had them “unite in the bedroom” as they should unite politically, yet because of their pride they cannot stay united thus dooming Mexico in hrothgar beowulf, its near future. Chuy’s representation continues the tomorrow macbeth, doom forecast for he is simply washed away -- obsolete. His way of life broken by corporate, capitalist Mexico, forcing him to pindar sdsu, become a cog in the machine (an uneducated worker, similar to the migrant who was run over by the bus in the beginning of the film), who in order to feed his family (barely), takes on a janitor job in tomorrow and tomorrow, a hotel, working in The Communication System From Cell Essay, an enclosed facility as opposed to tomorrow macbeth, being in the fresh air and of the earth as a “free” fisherman and merchant. The recipe is one for disaster.

What is not shown but certainly readable within the narration is the mushroom factor. Chuy will not be able to make a living from janitor wages. He will have to of ongoing, get a second or a third job; and instead of tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth his wife and babies accompanying him on american expansionism, his fishing or touring outings, keeping the family tightly woven, she will have to and tomorrow, get a job (uneducated and unskilled), perhaps as a maid or something similar. Without the System From Cell, extended family support, the tomorrow, children grow up poor, largely unsupervised, and create the classic inner city youth culture that haunts every poverty-stricken inner city culture [15] . Thus, if Chuy is in fact, as I contend, the average “everyman” Mexican, then Cuarn is making a bold socio political statement – Mexico, en masse, will not succeed. Tenoch and Julio need no further explanation as to pindar sdsu, their symbolism, Luisa on macbeth, the other fills three symbolic roles and needs much further scrutiny.

The first as the pindar sdsu, modern sexualized woman -- The virgin / Virgin / whore, a role she stereotypically has to and tomorrow, pay for her by dying a horrible death, following a long line of heroines who left their traditional roles only to be brought back to earth in american expansionism, one way or another. And Tomorrow? [16] She also is the long-suffering, doting lifeless wife, who beyond contentment is most importantly, responsible. She in many ways is the mythical La Llorona the weeping woman; the only thing here missing is the children to complete the picture. [17] Lastly Luisa (a Spaniard) also represents Spain’s influence on, and relationship to, Mexico. In her death she is in essence emulating Spain’s current relationship to Mexico -- dead and nonexistent; however, it is still the mother country responsible for the country’s creation. In this instance, Luisa is responsible for revealing to Julio and Tenoch that their destinies are intertwined, bringing them together in the same fashion that Spain’s colonial conquest brought together the European and write for an Indian which then gave rise to the Criollo and Mestizo. Her importance here goes even beyond the Virgin Guadalupe or the Indigenous queen La Malinche. And Tomorrow? Luisa is a process, almost primordial. She is the one who shows the boys their true desire / salvation is with each other; she is the tomorrow and tomorrow, one who births their consciousness -- sexual, moral --and makes them contextualize their relationship. A Eulogy For An? Then she dies mythically as Spain has died as the Mother country. There can be no Mexico without Julio and tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth Tenoch, the darker and lighter brother, ruling class and the lower classes, combining.

Which is why I feel ultimately the write for an aunt, sexual tension and ultimate homosexual union between them is an effective cinema technique providing not only and tomorrow macbeth shock value and sensationalism, but also subtext. A reading that illustrates oneness to the extent that they both are necessary and symbiotic. They have shared the same mother, literally and figuratively, by birth or in Oedipus fashion, yet their real mother is Luisa whom ironically they share as well. I think Cuarn is saying here that Mexico can no longer look to Spain or the developed world in general, for direction. That Mexico must turn inwards on itself, morphing into a new Mexican from its many parts in order to move forward. Unfortunately, instead of unifying, Julio and Tenoch, shamed never see each other again. If they “never” see each other again what happens to modern Mexico? Can the race and class struggle ever be resolved, particularly under the auspices of the new globalization? It seems for expansionism director Alfonso Cuarn, the answer is tomorrow macbeth, a very clear, disheartening, and resounding, NO! [1] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of Texas press, 1992 p.1-2.

[6] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of Texas press, 1992 p.3. [7] Francis Cress Welsing, The Isis Papers , Third World Press, 1991 p.1-3. [8] Gerard Genette , Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method , Cornell University Press, 1983 p.244-245. Narrators, according to the classifications given by Gerard Genette, can most simply be typed as heterodiegetic (parallel with what is commonly referred to american, as third-person narration, with the narrator absent from the story he tells) and homodiegetic (parallel with first-person narration, with the narrator present as a character in the story he tells). [9] Fennessy, James, “I ain’t never supposed to do this” – Race and Narration in macbeth, the films of the Coen Brothers. Fennessy.pdf. [10] Teshome H. Gabriel, Towards a Critical Theory of Third World Films , in Michael T. Martin (Ed.) Cinemas of the Black Diaspora, Wayne State University Press, 1995, p 72-75.

[11] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude, University of Texas press, 1992 p. 19. [12] All narration taken directly from viewing Y tu Mam Tambin . [13] Paul Gulino, Screenwriting: The Sequence Approach, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. [14] Pedro Infante made this role famous and pindar sdsu usually the motif of the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, cowboy is somehow in reference to the beloved revolutionary period. Pindar Sdsu? The cowboy is … Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of Texas press, 1992 p.98. [15] This population is represented by many Mexican films featuring Mexico City as its setting, but the most fascinating recent film that speaks to the youth culture is and tomorrow macbeth, Amores Perros , (2001). [16] Berg covers the woman’s role in Mexican cinema quite effectively, devoting 2 chapters on Mexican female roles in the cinema.

He illustrates not only the stereotypes, but also the feminists struggle against such ideology. ibid, Chapter 4, p.55-71. [17] La Llorona is the goal of ongoing improvement, a legend that seems to be a combination of Aztec and European folklore. Basically, she is a wandering woman who walks at night, unceasingly, looking for a lost or murdered child, or children. Tomorrow? Sometimes avenging an adulterous lover. It has several variations but the consistency is that she is very, very sad.

Ibid, p.78.

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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. And Tomorrow? This type of essay is hrothgar utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, structure of the a eulogy for an, 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, you’ll be able to tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays.

5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the american, most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of? Is one able to learn from the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, errors of other individuals? Is it moral to the goal of ongoing, conduct experiments on tomorrow and tomorrow animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal?

Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to these examples. The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. American Expansionism? The Hook Sentence has the purpose of and tomorrow macbeth catching the reader’s interest. In general, the Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection.

In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to hrothgar beowulf, live in a world of barren lands and waste?” The question above is macbeth a rhetorical one. For An? This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to From Load to PC, be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of our planet.

This is the most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument. The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to tomorrow, averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the hrothgar, best solution would be to modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the and tomorrow, “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the how to a eulogy for an aunt, perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion).

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For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to move around the city. The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the pindar sdsu, subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the tomorrow macbeth, deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction. Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and hrothgar, endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the more we will profit from tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, it.

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Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, Content. Focus: Did the pindar sdsu, student take enough time to tomorrow macbeth, demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from one paragraph to the other in a steady manner? Did they stick to pindar sdsu, the adequate structure without deviating from it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the phrases too long?

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Essay: A Review of momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis. Unlike normal portfolio managers who perform various analysis on the fundamental performance of equity stocks, a momentum portfolio is only concerned with the patterns of the stocks. The portfolio will then take a long or short position on the stock in order to arbitrage from the continuation of its upward or downward movement, which is so called momentum. Inspired by tomorrow, Jegadeesh and Titman (2011), I focus the attention on the post-crisis performance of momentum trading strategy with the special focus on the negative return on the year 2009. A sample of 1294 firms from NYSE from July 2009 to June 2015 is investigated and the result from the System Load regression shows that the return of the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow momentum strategy has been disappeared in the US. Hrothgar. Based on the research, the adjusted returns, based on the Fama-French factor model, of all the and tomorrow winner and loser portfolios are not significantly different from zero. Beowulf. The regression result indicates that the disappearance of abnormal return discovered in Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). Therefore, this paper employs behavior model and attributes the tomorrow and tomorrow return to the goal improvement the market over or under reaction to information. This conclusion may also provide support for testing the efficient market hypothesis, to which the momentum effect is strongly against.

Chapter 1 Introduction. Since 1960s, efficient market hypothesis has been widely accepted by the financial market. Traditional finance theory proposed by Fama and French declares that there is a tradeoff between risk and return, and no one can consistently achieve higher profit without taking additional risk. Later, the and tomorrow macbeth arbitrage pricing theory put out by Stephen Ross provided further explanation for the goal a process of ongoing improvement, the price movement under the efficient market situation. However, these papers do not prevent the passion of greedy individuals from exploiting zero risk profit. Researchers and investors have consistently found problems with the efficient-market hypothesis and APT, the most prominent one is the momentum anomaly discovered by tomorrow macbeth, Jegadeesh and Titman. The momentum strategy is System From Cell Essay, based on the phenomenon that the best (worst) performed stocks during the tomorrow macbeth past several months tend to continue to perform good (bad) over the following months. According to Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) this strategy could consistently generate an abnormal return of about 1% per month for The Communication System Load Cell Essay, the U.S. Macbeth. market over the period 1965-1989. In the following paper Jegadeesh and Titman (2011) shows that momentum strategies still persist to be profitable until 1990s and there are more empirical evidences across countries to support it. Moreover, it also extended its research until 2004 and successfully got a consistent result. However, the strategies experienced the first loss for the five year period from 2004.

Another five years has now passed since that paper and how to for an aunt, the financial market has survived and is recovering from the financial crisis. It is interesting for the researcher to know how the momentum strategy performed after the financial crisis and what is the reason behind the dramatic change in the momentum profit. So my research question is: What is the performance of momentum portfolio after the global financial crisis? In particular, this article will focus on the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of also six months. Using the same lengths of ranking and holding periods as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), we are in an attempt to compare with their result to see whether the successful performance of the momentum strategy still persists. In our follow-up study, the research will also be conducted on the performance of the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of three months to see whether the result is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, consistent.

To illustrate our process in a nutshell, the sample consists of all the 1991 stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange that have a continuous price record from american expansionism, June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. From this sample small size firms and low priced stocks are then excluded to avoid liquidity issues. The remaining 1315 firms are used to form winners/losers portfolios at the end of each ranking period based on their past six-month returns. These portfolios are then held for the next six months. Monthly roll over strategy is applied, which means, for every consecutive twelve months in our sample period starting from July 2009 to tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth May 2013, there is a ranking and pricing, holding period formed. The winners/losers momentum return for a particular month is the average of returns of all the winners/losers portfolios held at that month.

The calculated monthly winners/losers momentum return time series are then used to test for the risk adjusted returns using the CAPM/ the Fama-French three-factor model. Besides these, the average book to market value and the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio and the average monthly return of each momentum portfolio are also reported to assist in interpreting the result. The remainder of this paper is constructed as follows: Chapter 2 provides a brief background of momentum studies. Chapter 3 details our data processing and methodology. Chapter 4 demonstrates the results and analyses, and and tomorrow, Chapter 5 concludes the paper. Chapter 2 Literature review and prior empirical evidence. 2.1 What is expansionism, momentum trading strategy. The phenomenon that the best- and worst-performing stocks of the past three to twelve months continue to realize, respectively, high and low returns over the next three to and tomorrow twelve months, is called price momentum (Nico L. van der Sar, Stock pricing and Corporate Events, 2nd edition 2011). The theoretically best trading strategy based on this phenomenon which basically takes a long position in the past winners while going short in The Communication System From Cell to PC Essay the past losers is called the tomorrow tomorrow macbeth momentum trading strategy.

This strategy consists of two time periods. Period A is the ranking period where stocks are ranked based on their past returns, while period C is the holding period for when the portfolios of the selected stocks are held. Sometimes there is also a period B called the pricing skipping period added in tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth between A and C to aid the performance of this strategy. However, this paper does not include this period, as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001) did. Investors following this strategy can construct different portfolios by choosing different ranking and holding periods ranging from 3, 6 to 12 months. The great profit they achieved through applying this strategy on the earlier found price momentums raises the question of whether this phenomenon shall persist, or whether it is just a compensation for risk. 2.2 Theories behind the momentum profit. In explaining the source of the american expansionism momentum profit, traditional finance theory and tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, the behavioral finance field deviate much.

In traditional finance theory, the market is penetration, considered to be overall efficient. An informational efficient market in tomorrow finance refers to a market where prices completely reflect all relevant available information at any given moment (Fama, 1970). Hrothgar Beowulf. For this informational efficiency, Fama (1970) distinguishes three forms, each of these forms being related to a specific collection of information, one containing more than the other. The weak form which lies at the very bottom of this efficient market hypothesis holds when prices fully reflect all currently available security market data. According to this, future price movements are completely independent from the past price patterns. Strategies like momentum trading are thus in vain.

The risk adjusted abnormal returns achieved by tomorrow, Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) are therefore considered to be an anomaly which attempts to reject the EMH. However, due to penetration the joint hypothesis problem, one can never reject the EMH since there is always a voice judging that the risk factor model may be not perfect. Conrad and Kaul (1998) thus argued that the tomorrow macbeth momentum profits could be entirely explained due to the cross-sectional variation in mean returns rather than any predictable time-series variation in improvement stock returns. Traditional finance theory has struggled for years to try to explain this anomaly. Fama and French (1996) addressed the price momentum phenomenon as the major embarrassment of their model to which further robustness tests on other recent data sets would be appropriate. Grundy and Martin (2001) demonstrated that the high momentum profit could also not be explained by the Fama-French three-factor model even the dynamics of the factor betas were taken into account. Where traditional finance has failed, behavioral finance has offered numerous explanations for price momentum. These explanations can be summarized as medium-term over- and/or under- reactions as a result of investors’ misperception of information or cognitive biases.

Various theoretical models were built to explain these inefficiencies. Among them are the model built by Daniel, Hirshleifer and and tomorrow macbeth, Subrahmanyam (1998) based on investor overconfidence and self-attribution, the model developed by american, Barberis, Shleifer and tomorrow tomorrow, Vishny (1998) which has one security assumed to follow random walk and one investor who believes in how to write a eulogy for an aunt either of two incorrect regimes, and the model developed by Hong and Stein (1999) which separates the population into two groups -‘the news watchers’ and tomorrow and tomorrow, ‘momentum traders’-and let information diffuse gradually among them. 2.3 Prior empirical evidence. Besides theoretical models built to illustrate the momentum profit, empirical evidence was documented to demonstrate the strength of its existence and the performance of momentum strategies. De long, Shleifer, Summers and Waldmann (1990) showed a strong evidence of positive feedback trading in the majority of 32 merging and for an, mature stock index futures markets. Macbeth. Rouwenhorst (1998) demonstrated the existence of a high risk adjusted momentum profit of more than 1% per month in twelve European countries from 1980 to 1995.

De Haas (1999) examined the price momentum effect for all stocks in the Netherlands from 1976 to 1998 and how to, also achieved a significant abnormal return of over 1% per month. And Tomorrow. The results were also positive though low for the goal improvement, emerging Asian markets documented by Chui, Titman and Wei (2000). Studies showed a disappearance of momentum profit has also brought our attention. Muga and Santamaria (2007) in examining the momentum effect in the Spanish stock market during the 1990s showed that the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth evidence of momentum disappeared after the 1997 crisis. Grinblatt and Titman (1989) and Grinblatt, Titman and Wermers (1995) showed that a large number of successful mutual funds appeared to have a preference for stocks of past winners. A question arises of whether the intense institutional trading recent years has eroded the momentum effect to its disappearance. Chapter 3 Data and Methodology. 3.1 Data overview.

The data used in this paper comes from the Datastream database[TBD]. It contains all the pricing 1991 equity securities listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange from June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. These 1991 firms do not include those that went public or got delisted during this period. Thus all the firms included have a continuous monthly price record for the whole period. The number of firms that went public during this period is 329 within which there is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, no firm that also got delisted during this period. Unfortunately, we do not have the number of firms that had survived till June 30th 2009 but got delisted during the following 4 years of hrothgar, sample period. Further research will be conducted on this. But we do not expect this number to be large and hope the total number of firms excluded will not count above 20 percent of the tomorrow macbeth whole sample.

Also, firms tend to face a decline in their market value before delisted. They are likely to fall into the ‘small stock’ category we later define which anyway will be excluded from the dataset in ex-post sample selection. Therefore, we believe the exclusion of these firms will not make our results biased because of american expansionism, either survivorship bias or cross-sectional data mining. The monthly price data we use for these 1991 firms is the adjusted closing price at the end of tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, each month starting from June 30th 2009 to beowulf May 31st 2013. The adjusted price is defined as the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth closing price which has been historically adjusted for bonus and rights issues. The data also contains the daily market value and the daily price to book value of each firm during the period. The market value is defined as the share price multiplied by write for an, the number of ordinary shares in tomorrow and tomorrow issue.

We also have the daily ‘market value corporation’ data available for each firm which also takes into account the market values of other listed and unlisted equities. But we find this two does not make any significant difference for us to define small stocks. Thus only the market value is used. The price to book value is defined as the share price divided by the book value per share. 3.2 Sample selection and descriptive statistics.

Small firms and low priced stocks are excluded from our sample to ensure that our results are not driven primarily by small and illiquid stocks or by bid-ask bounce pointed out by Conrad and Kaul (1993) to De Bondt and Thaler (1985). To achieve this, we define the market capitalization of each firm as the three-year average of american expansionism, their daily market value from tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013. For the 1991 firms in total, we first rank them according to this average and american expansionism, exclude those that belong to the bottom decile. 200 firms are in this case excluded from the and tomorrow macbeth sample and the remaining 1791 firms have their market capitalization from $28.9 million to the highest $377 billion. We then count the number of times for each of the the goal improvement remaining firms to tomorrow be priced below $5 per share at the ends of the total 36 ranking periods from December 31st 2009 to hrothgar beowulf November 30th 2012.

The length we use for tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, a ranking period is penetration, six months. Thus the first ranking period is from July 1st 2009 till December 31st 2009 while the last is from June 1st 2012 till November 30th 2012 after 35 monthly roll-overs. Those firms that are priced below $5 per share for above 10 times at the ends of the tomorrow tomorrow 36 ranking periods (i.e. the System From Load Cell to PC holding periods’ beginnings) are excluded from the sample. These are what we define as low priced firms. 476 firms are in this case excluded, and the remaining 1315 are those finally used to form portfolios. The descriptive statistics of the market capitalization, the three-year average of daily price to book value and tomorrow and tomorrow, the average monthly return of these 1315 firms can be found in Appendix Table 1. Due to data limitations there are 30 firms that do not have their daily price to book value available. Expansionism. [TBD] By using the monthly adjusted closing prices, first the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow monthly returns for each firm from July 2009 to write a eulogy aunt May 2013 are calculated. Then the tomorrow and tomorrow compounded returns of every six consecutive months for each firm are calculated, starting from July 1st’December 31st 2009 to penetration June 1st-November 31st 2012. These are the tomorrow tomorrow macbeth 36 ranking periods discussed in the previous section. Following Jegadeesh and a eulogy for an aunt, Titman (1993), at tomorrow, the end of pricing, each ranking period we rank the 1315 stocks in our sample based on their past six-month compounded returns and then group them into 5 equally weighted portfolios based on these ranks. Each portfolio consists of 263 firms and is held for the next six months.

Ranking Period Holding Period. ( Month -5 to Month 0 ) ( Month 1 to Month 6 ) Portfolio I always contains stocks ranked from 1-263 which are those stocks that perform worst in the ranking period. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. Portfolio II always contains stocks ranked from The Communication From Essay, 264 to 789, and so on. It is the Portfolio V that holds the past winners. Each portfolio in tomorrow and tomorrow our holding period is rebalanced monthly for simplicity. Beowulf. Since each portfolio is and tomorrow, only held for six months every time, we believe our monthly returns for each portfolio will not deviate much from those if not rebalanced. To increase the power of our tests, we also construct overlapping portfolios as Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) did: In this case, a momentum quintile portfolio in any particular month holds stocks ranked in that quintile in penetration any of the previous six ranking months.

For instance, a December winner portfolio comprises twenty percent of the stocks with the highest returns over and tomorrow macbeth, the previous June to November period, the penetration previous May to October, and so on up to the previous January to and tomorrow June period. Pindar Sdsu. Each monthly cohort is assigned an equal weight in this portfolio. To put in another way, for every month (except the macbeth beginning five and the ending five months) we now have six Portfolio I s, six Portfolio II s and beowulf, so on, and the return of the winner/loser portfolio (denoted as Portfolio 5/Portfolio1) in that month is the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth average of the returns of the six Portfolio Vs/Portfolio Is.TBD. Chapter 4 Results and Analyses. 4.1 Average monthly returns.

Appendix Table 2 presents the average monthly return from Jan 2010 to beowulf May 2013 for tomorrow tomorrow, each of the five momentum portfolios. The sample is the 1315 stocks we selected. EWI is the average monthly return for an equally weighted portfolio that contains every stock in our sample, also rebalanced monthly. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over expansionism, the previous six months, while P2 is the tomorrow macbeth equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest past six-month returns, and so on. Compared with Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), the monotonic increasing pattern of returns over portfolio ranks observed in penetration their result now disappears. Instead, our result reveals a symmetric U shape of returns over ranks. It is the winners and the losers portfolios (P5 and P1) that achieve the highest average monthly returns.

It is the tomorrow most modest portfolio P3 that achieves the lowest average monthly return. Somewhat ironic is that the losers portfolio even outperforms the winners. However, these differences are all not statistically significant. The difference between the P5 and P1 portfolio returns is -0.037% and the t statistic is only -0.1068. This is in contrast to a process of ongoing improvement the 1.17% difference and 4.96 t statistic found in Jegadeesh and and tomorrow macbeth, Titman (1993). We also take the difference between the P1 and P3 portfolio returns and find their t statistic is also smaller than 1. [ Insert Appendix Table 2 ] To see whether our result of the losers portfolio P1 outperforming the winners portfolio P5 on the average case is due to a potential outlier effect of of ongoing improvement, one specific month, the tomorrow tomorrow macbeth monthly returns of the two portfolios from hrothgar beowulf, January 2010 to May 2013 are presented in Appendix Figure 1. Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth. Indeed there is one month (January 2012) in which the losers portfolio P1 significantly outperforms the winners portfolio P5. However, from the figure there is no evidence suggesting for the most part P5 outperforms P1 in the other months.

After we exclude the January 2012 returns, very slightly P1 still outperforms P5 indicating the momentum effect is now gone. [ Insert Appendix Figure 1 ] 4.2 Average price to book values and for an aunt, Average market capitalizations. Appendix Table 3 reports the average price to tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth book value of pindar sdsu, firms under each portfolio. The price to book value of a firm under this case is defined as the three-year average of its daily price to book value. Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth. We also have transformed the price to book value to the book-to-market ratio and System From Load Essay, report under Table 3. [ Insert Appendix Table 3 ] There is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, a roughly increasing pattern of the book-to-market ratio from P5 to P1 indicating that the past winners portfolio P5 is to a large extent constructed by those glamour stocks named by Lakonishok, Shleifer and Vishny (1994), while the losers portfolio tends to contain the value stocks. The pattern is not very robust and the goal a process of ongoing improvement, the book-to-market ratios are actually very close to each other. This may be because that we have only tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth divided the sample into five quintiles, and beowulf, what most crucial is that we have used the three-year average (which does not vary with time) to define a firm’s book-to-market ratio under each holding period which varies with time and with the firm’s position changes within the five quintiles. Table 3 also reports the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio. There is tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, also an increasing pattern from P1 to P5 indicating that the past losers portfolio is to a large extent constructed by those stocks of small size firms while the past winners tends to american contain big firms. Similar to the price to book value, here the market capitalization suffers from the tomorrow problem of the goal of ongoing improvement, using the three year average of market value to define a firm’s market capitalization under each holding period. The results above suggest that the highest average monthly return of P1 seems to be partly due to its smaller market capitalization and higher book-to-market ratio.

This is consistent with the Fama-French three-factor model (Fama and French, 1993) as small size firms and firms with higher book-to-market ratios tend to have higher risk factor coefficients. However, this reasoning cannot explain our observed high average monthly return of the past winners P5. Tomorrow Macbeth. This may be due to the problem we discussed before that makes our average book to market ratio and average market capitalization indications not timely precise to each holding period. Also we have not considered the sensitivity of each portfolio to the market risk factor and its magnitude which explains the risk adjusted return in part as well. In order to look further on this, in the next section we test for the risk adjusted abnormal return using the The Communication System Cell three factor model and check the factor coefficients patterns among the five portfolios.

4.3 The risk adjusted abnormal returns. Though the tomorrow and tomorrow winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 on average outperform P2 P3 and P4, we have to pindar sdsu check whether this outperformance is attributed to risk. Appendix Table 4 Panel A summarizes the factor sensitivities of each portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model with their t statistics reported in parentheses. Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth. The market sensitivity to the CAPM model is estimated by regressing the monthly return of each momentum portfolio less the risk-free rate (except for the zero investment P1-P3 and P5-P1 portfolios) on the monthly return of the NASDAQ composite index less the risk-free rate, while the improvement factor sensitivities to tomorrow the Fama-French three-factor model is estimated by the goal a process of ongoing, regressing on tomorrow macbeth the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors. FF: R-R_f=i??i??(R_m-R_f )+ b_s (SMB)+b_v (HML)+i??i?? The risk-free rate used in both cases is the monthly interest rate on the Treasury bill. This data is from the Wharton Research Data Services. And the data for the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors is from the Kenneth R. French Data Library. Due to data limitations the monthly interest rate only has an available record till December 2012. Beowulf. However, as a result of the Federal Reserve quantitative easing policy, the monthly interest rates during the whole sample period are very close to zero with the highest only tomorrow tomorrow 0.01%. Thus even without minus these interest rates the results are the same.

Also we have tested that with the last five months excluded our results change little. Chapter 5 Conclusion. Are all results in accordance? Do they really tell a story? How is the pindar sdsu story that emerges different from the previous results in the literature? How would the results contribute or advance our current knowledge?

Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (1993), Returns to buying winners and selling losers: Implications for stock market efficiency, Journal of Finance 48, 65-91. Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (2001), Profitability of momentum strategies: An evaluation of alternative explanations, Journal of Finance 56, 699-720. Conrad, J. and G. Kaul (1998), An anatomy of trading strategies, Review of Financial Studies 11, 489-519. Barberis, N., A. Shleifer and R. Vishny (1998), A model of investor sentiment, Journal of Financial Economics 49, 307-343. Hong, H., and J.C. Stein (1999), A unified theory of underreaction, momentum trading, and overreaction in asset markets, Journal of Finance 54, 2143-2184. Daniel, K., D. Hirshleifer and A. Subrahmanyam (1998), Investor psychology and tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, security market under- and overreactions, Journal of Finance 53, 1839-1885. Rouwenhorst, K.G. (1998), International momentum strategies, Journal of Finance 53, 267-284. De Long, J.B., A. Shleifer, L.H. Summers and R.J.

Waldmann (1990), Positive feedback investment strategies and destabilizing rational speculation, Journal of Finance 45, 379-395. Chui, Andy C.W., S. Titman and penetration, K.C. John Wei (2000), Individualism and momentum around the world, Journal of Finance 65, 361-392. Muga, L. and R. Santamaria (2007), The stock market crisis and momentum: Some evidence for the Spanish stock market during the 1990s, Applied Financial Economics 17, 469-486. De Haas, S.A. (1999), Momentumstrategieen op de Nederlandse aandelenmarkt, master thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1993), Common risk factors in returns on tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow stocks and bonds, Journal of Financial Economics 33, 3-56. Lakonishok, J., A. Pindar Sdsu. Shleifer and R.W. Vishny (1994), Contrarian investment, extrapolation, and risk, Journal of Financial Economics 32, 23-43.

Grinblatt, M. and S. Titman (1989), The persistence of mutual fund performance, Journal of Finance 47, 1977-1984. Grinblatt, M., S. Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow. Titman and R. Wermers (1995), Momentum investment strategies, portfolio performance, and herding: A study of mutual fund behavior, American Economic Review 85, 1088-1105. Fama, E.F. (1970), Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work, Journal of Finance 25, 383-417. N.L. Van der Sar, Stock pricing and pindar sdsu, corporate events, 2nd edition, Rotterdam, Erasmusshop Rotterdam, 2011. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1998), Value versus growth: The international evidence, Journal of Finance 53, 1975-1999. Grundy, B.D. and J.S. Martin (2001), Understanding the nature of the risks and the source of the tomorrow rewards to momentum investing, Review of Financial Studies 14, 29-78. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1996), Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies, Journal of Finance 51, 55-84. Conrad, J. and G. Kaul (1993), Long-term market overreaction or biases in computed returns?, Journal of System Essay, Finance 48, 39-63.

De Bondt, W.F.M. and R.H. Thaler (1985), Does the tomorrow and tomorrow stock market overreact?, Journal of Finance 40, 793-805. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan and Titman, Sheridan, Momentum (August 29, 2011). Available at SSRN: or Monthly Returns of the Winners and the Losers Portfolios. This figure reports the monthly returns of the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 from January 2010 to May 2013. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the how to a eulogy stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months and P5 is the equally weighted portfolio of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, 20 percent of the stocks with the highest returns over penetration, the previous six months.

The sample stocks used to form these portfolios is the 1315 firms selected from tomorrow macbeth, all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in american section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to tomorrow macbeth the bottom decile and how to write a eulogy for an, stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Summary of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, Descriptive Statistics. This table reports the pindar sdsu descriptive statistics of the average daily market value (market capitalization) and the average daily price to book value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013 for the 1315 (except for tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, the average PTBV where the data for 30 firms is The Communication Load Cell, missing) firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Also the descriptive statistic of the average monthly return from January 2010 to May 2013 of the 1315 firms is and tomorrow macbeth, reported. The Communication System From. This average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. The selection of the and tomorrow macbeth 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to pindar sdsu the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. And Tomorrow Macbeth. The unit for pindar sdsu, MKT_CAP is in millions. Average Monthly Returns.

This table presents the average monthly return for each of the five momentum portfolios formed based on past six-month returns and held for six months. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the tomorrow macbeth stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the the goal of ongoing next lowest returns, and so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the tomorrow and tomorrow sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in The Communication System Load to PC section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, ranking periods are excluded. Average Price to Book Values and Average Market Capitalizations.

This table reports the average price to book value, the average book to improvement market ratio and the average market capitalization of firms under each portfolio. The price to book value/market capitalization of a firm under this case is and tomorrow macbeth, defined as its average daily price to book value/market value from January 1st 2010 to System From Cell Essay May 31st 2013. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, 20 percent of the stocks with the beowulf next lowest returns, and so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the american expansionism sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, above 10 times at pricing, the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for MKT_CAP is in millions. PANEL A CAPM and Fama-French Factor Sensitivities. This table presents the and tomorrow macbeth factor sensitivities of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. CAPM market sensitivities/FF factor sensitivities are the slope coefficients in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions.

Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. How To A Eulogy For An. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012. ‘Market’ is the market factor, ‘SMB’ is the size factor and ‘HML’ is the book to market factor. Tomorrow. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the the goal a process of ongoing lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the and tomorrow stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the pindar sdsu sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at pricing, the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. PANEL B The Risk Adjusted Abnormal Returns. This table reports the risk adjusted returns of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. The CAPM Alphas/FF Alphas are the intercepts in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions. Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. The testing period is from January 2010 to tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow December 2012.

P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of The Communication From Load Cell Essay, 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on tomorrow macbeth the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to how to write a eulogy aunt the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at and tomorrow, the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on american expansionism hand, waiting to macbeth help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Pindar Sdsu. Just complete our simple order form and tomorrow macbeth, you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Review of pindar sdsu, momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth original author of pindar sdsu, this content and tomorrow macbeth, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of pindar sdsu, exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS – literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in tomorrow tomorrow macbeth Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital – Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and pindar sdsu, expected return.

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How to Write an and tomorrow macbeth, APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. Beowulf. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the tomorrow macbeth “View header” function in MS Word.

On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. Pindar Sdsu. (Note: on tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow, the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number.

Use the how to a eulogy for an toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. State topic, preferably in hrothgar beowulf, one sentence. Provide overview of macbeth, method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at pricing penetration, the top of the pagenot bold)

The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. Tomorrow Tomorrow And Tomorrow Macbeth. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and american critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the and tomorrow stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. Pindar Sdsu. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not?

See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the the goal of ongoing only way) is to provide an and tomorrow macbeth, example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the how to for an aunt end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at tomorrow macbeth, the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Beowulf. Your intro should be a logical flow of tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, ideas that leads up to a eulogy, your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.

In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, your paper. Improvement. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and tomorrow tomorrow think about how you want to the goal a process of ongoing, transition between ideas. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of pricing, your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary.

Don’t make one mistake typical of and tomorrow, a novice APA-paper writer by american expansionism stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is tomorrow tomorrow relevant to my study because”). American Expansionism. It should be obvious to tomorrow, the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. American Expansionism. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

(labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, your study in expansionism, such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. And Tomorrow. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in how to write aunt, a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to tomorrow, present the Procedure section prior to the.

Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and american SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. And Tomorrow Macbeth. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Hrothgar Beowulf. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold)

Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth so forth. It is pricing unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow data analysis, the color of the write a eulogy computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth, detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Pindar Sdsu. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.

If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an tomorrow macbeth, apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for?

Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Pindar Sdsu. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. And Tomorrow. Don’t forget to include brief statements about american informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and tomorrow macbeth what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into System Load to PC, labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.

Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Tomorrow Macbeth. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the of ongoing improvement number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Tomorrow Tomorrow Macbeth. Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is write a eulogy for an “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to and tomorrow macbeth, report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of pricing penetration, all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”).

This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the tomorrow and tomorrow same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the pricing relevant means and tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is american not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to tomorrow macbeth, represent your results, you may wish to report means and beowulf standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the tomorrow figure. Do describe the System Cell trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold)

The goal of the discussion section is to tomorrow macbeth, interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in how to for an, the area. Tomorrow Macbeth. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?

What do the the goal improvement results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to a eulogy aunt, explain the macbeth findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into a process of ongoing, the future research section, below.

What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in tomorrow tomorrow macbeth, the current body of research? Whenever you present an The Communication From Load Cell Essay, idea for macbeth, a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into a process improvement, what extensions of the tomorrow tomorrow and tomorrow research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the expansionism theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?

Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. Pricing. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in and tomorrow macbeth, Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of hrothgar beowulf, references to macbeth, journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202.

Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the write for an first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation.

Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the tomorrow and tomorrow macbeth first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. American Expansionism. G. (1985). Intergroup relations.

In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). Tomorrow Tomorrow. New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to The Communication Load to PC Essay, include. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. See the APA manual.

Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and american expansionism make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the tomorrow figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and pindar sdsu below the mean. (see pp.

174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and tomorrow macbeth publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to hrothgar beowulf, Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in tomorrow and tomorrow, parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the pindar sdsu page number.

For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the tomorrow tomorrow authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the how to write for an first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is tomorrow tomorrow macbeth cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in pricing, his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to tomorrow, the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and hrothgar Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Tomorrow And Tomorrow. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your.

papers; in other words, try to pricing, find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in tomorrow and tomorrow, the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in pricing penetration, Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .