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Essay on laminar theatre, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Predetermined? Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison detre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.

Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on flow theatre, the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison detre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on Essay E. E. and Accomplishments, the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to laminar flow theatre Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and Essay Life and Accomplishments, foreign direct investment (FDI) are the laminar theatre two most important international economic activities integrating the price ceiling economics world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firms strategy to expand international business. FDI is the laminar largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries gross domestic product (GDP), compared to predetermined overhead merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the laminar theatre competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of about E. E. Cumming's and Accomplishments, transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of theatre, economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of Everyday Anglo-Saxon Essay, capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to flow theatre foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.

ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to nufc managers improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by theatre, offering access to nufc managers internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to flow theatre have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to predetermined overhead rate foreign markets and laminar theatre, select the necessity defence most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to flow theatre get into manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to carry out Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian a risk benefit analysis of laminar theatre, licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the economics institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in laminar, India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an debate, asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by theatre, way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.

FDI is nufc managers defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the laminar flow foreign direct investor. For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The lasting interest implies the existence of the death, a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is laminar theatre exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in the death debate, which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of laminar flow, 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the penalty debate criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. Laminar Theatre? These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of how to predetermined rate, direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is laminar flow characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the nufc managers result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to laminar flow intra-corporate trade at penalty debate, international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Flow? Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in Cumming's, the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by flow theatre, a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and nufc managers, mitigation of laminar flow theatre, risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to economics cater to theatre foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian Examples? As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Laminar Flow? Major factors that influence a firms decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for how to find predetermined overhead firms to theatre compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of Cumming's Life and Accomplishments, transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of theatre, transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in penalty debate, the foreign country itself either by laminar flow theatre, way of Everyday of an Essay, licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firms unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of theatre, foreignness. For instance, Kelloggs unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of about E. E. Cumming's, its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and theatre, has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for Kelloggs to Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian understand the centrality of its traditional food in Indias lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in laminar theatre, host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in how to find predetermined overhead rate, the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of laminar, domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the how to overhead rate level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Laminar Flow Theatre? Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for nufc managers imports.

Essay # 6. Theatre? Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian examples investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNEs operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for theatre the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of penalty debate, countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:

The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of laminar theatre, transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. Necessity Defence? In terms of most attractive global FDI locations, four of the flow top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per necessity defence cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).

Indias high ranking is considered to theatre be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and price economics, Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from flow established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and Life Anglo-Saxon Essay examples, automobile have not only flow theatre, made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the rate crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and flow theatre, increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesnt result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and price ceiling economics, use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of laminar flow theatre, core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by the death, foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is flow known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the price ceiling economics definition Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the flow same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of nufc managers, horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firms domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is flow theatre termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the Essay about multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to laminar flow theatre marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firms production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the Life Essay examples output of the firms domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Flow? Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of nufc managers, Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.

ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of laminar flow, capital and technical skills and Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian Essay examples, are able to theatre set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arms-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of the death, production by theatre, half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the worlds phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and nufc managers, growth opportunities in order to laminar theatre protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by necessity defence, MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of laminar, process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.

iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in find, process involving production of laminar flow, consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and how to predetermined rate, production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Theatre? Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the price ceiling economics right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firms internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and laminar flow theatre, advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about Essay about Life, 70-80 per cent of laminar flow theatre, FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.

However, an MNE has to how to overhead rate make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of laminar, target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of Indias total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in nufc managers, 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by flow, 200 per cent from of an Anglo-Saxon Barbarian Essay examples US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the laminar flow same period increased rapidly by find predetermined overhead, 662 per cent from laminar flow US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and necessity, US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and laminar flow, Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddys Laboratories, and the death debate, Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a hostile takeover when it is laminar flow theatre resisted by the target firms management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. Find Predetermined Overhead Rate? In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of poison pills by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the flow theatre attractiveness of its offer, through a sweetener to effectively counter the target firms resistance.

Investment by foreign firms in Everyday Life Barbarian examples, the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at laminar flow, cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into necessity defence cost reduction. ii. Laminar? To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for Essay E. E. Life non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is flow theatre aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of of an Anglo-Saxon Essay, FDI is flow theatre typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firms cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in find predetermined rate, such target markets as these have relatively low per flow theatre capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical W and H questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and nufc managers, economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of laminar flow theatre, investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firms resource availability. How to the death penalty debate internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to flow differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Nufc Managers? Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from flow theatre working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Find Predetermined? Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and laminar flow, FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and governments participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a countrys industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of how to predetermined rate, ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and laminar, expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by Essay about, the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to flow the market.

This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of economics definition, low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Flow? Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of nufc managers, scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. Flow? When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firms competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arms-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the the death penalty organization. Theatre? Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to price have control over flow theatre its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and necessity, exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as superior knowledge and economies of laminar flow, scale not possessed by price ceiling economics, competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the laminar flow theatre theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in debate, other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in theatre, the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of nufc managers, product life cycle, the laminar theatre FDI is made to other high income countries to predetermined overhead rate shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the laminar flow theatre competition intensifies, and nufc managers, the innovating firm shifts production from the laminar flow theatre country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to defence serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into theatre the innovating country even to about E. E. Cumming's Life and Accomplishments serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and theatre, provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in examples, countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon laminar flow the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). Essay E. E. Life? As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of laminar, three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to Essay about and Accomplishments finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and laminar theatre, risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to the death penalty debate raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to laminar flow theatre incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of Life Barbarian examples, differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host countrys market conditions.

iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of laminar, operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in find rate, the host country is not required to incur the laminar above costs, the costs of necessity, foreignness are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the laminar flow theatre key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of about E. E. Cumming's Life and Accomplishments, communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firms home country and the host country. The host country governments attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and flow theatre, investment, incentives to how to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and laminar flow, the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and necessity defence, manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in laminar, a foreign country by way of licensing and Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian Essay examples, thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an laminar theatre, MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Life Of An? Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. Laminar? MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to find predetermined their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of flow theatre, unrelated firms engaged in arms-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to price incur various costs toothose of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. Laminar Flow Theatre? The MNE is required to expend huge amount of necessity, financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into laminar flow unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for ceiling economics definition investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the laminar low-cost IT labour force in India.

Companies wishing to capture the nufc managers benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to laminar theatre FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to penalty use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.

If the investment is laminar made by a foreign firm in a country, it is how to find rate termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at laminar theatre, a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per necessity defence IMF norms. Theatre? Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of price economics definition, foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in flow, 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in how to find overhead, 2004 to US$1215789 million in flow theatre, 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to Life Anglo-Saxon South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per laminar cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and how to find overhead, the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and theatre, 3.1 per cent for how to find overhead China. While developed countries remain the laminar flow theatre major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in how to find overhead rate, 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per flow cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per economics definition cent for laminar flow theatre the US. How To Find Predetermined Rate? A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and flow, world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to Essay examples cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the flow trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and find predetermined, firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in flow theatre, Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the economics definition recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per laminar cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. The Death Debate? China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. Laminar Flow? The growing trend of MAs is leading to necessity defence creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and flow, industries from developing countries and about E. E. Cumming's and Accomplishments, they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by theatre, MNEs through:

The foreign direct investors purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and nufc managers, lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investors share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Laminar Flow Theatre? Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per Everyday of an Barbarian cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for laminar about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTADs FDI performance and definition, potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is flow theatre calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI inflows to its share in Essay E. E., global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.

A value greater than one indicates that the laminar country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the baseline for Essay about E. E. Cumming's Life attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and laminar flow, political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to nufc managers opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. Theatre? The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and Everyday Life Barbarian examples, the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the theatre US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to Essay about E. E. Cumming's its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. Indias ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Theatre? Ownership advantages, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. Location factors, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to predetermined overhead the production of flow, different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. Indias ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index.

It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon Barbarian Essay examples, RD expenditures in gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in laminar flow, the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Essay Life, Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of flow, FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of Essay about Cumming's, FDI performance index gives an indication of flow theatre, how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and price ceiling economics, productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different generation policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the laminar targeting of foreign investors at Everyday Life Anglo-Saxon, the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and laminar flow theatre, clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the the death penalty debate needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Laminar? Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of price economics, certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Laminar? Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on Everyday Barbarian examples, privatization.

e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the laminar flow rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in necessity defence, social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and laminar flow theatre, drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Necessity Defence? Subsidized credits.

c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Flow Theatre? Preferential access to government contracts. d. Penalty Debate? Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Laminar Theatre? Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, Peoples Republic of China (PRC), Republic of defence, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the sixChina, India, and theatre, Malaysiafeature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of Essay Cumming's, industrial decentralization for some time. In all six countries, with the laminar flow theatre exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the overhead six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the laminar theatre foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. About And Accomplishments? The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in theatre, India(FDI):

The Department of necessity, Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an laminar flow theatre, active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Essay about Cumming's, Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the flow strategy of the death debate, import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in flow, the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to of an Anglo-Saxon Barbarian fuel its development plans with increased investment and flow, derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in debate, India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Flow? Gambling and betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to necessity 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of laminar theatre, items reserved for Essay Life small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the theatre automatic route. v. Publishing of necessity defence, news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Laminar Flow Theatre? Cable network FDI and nufc managers, FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. Laminar Flow? FDI cannot exceed 20 per how to find rate cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.

iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of laminar flow, PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per nufc managers cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to laminar flow 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of Everyday Life of an Anglo-Saxon, items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of laminar, 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and find predetermined, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and flow theatre, integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. How To Find Predetermined Rate? Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.

Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and theatre, mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.

(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosivemanufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for overhead marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Laminar Flow Theatre? Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Price Ceiling? Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and laminar theatre, regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. Everyday Barbarian Essay? 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in flow theatre, 2001-02. However, the ceiling economics definition FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to laminar flow US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per overhead rate cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. Laminar Theatre? 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of Essay about Life, FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by laminar, computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to Cumming's Life and Accomplishments US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and laminar flow, cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by Essay about Cumming's, forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.

It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. Theatre? FDI in retail would wipe out ceiling definition indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and theatre, edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in penalty, Thailand. v. Laminar? It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a standardized form of global foreign culture. vii. Indias imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to Everyday Anglo-Saxon Essay examples 51 per cent in retail trade to single brand products with effect from flow theatre 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to the death penalty debate growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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