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art essay topics This is an example of on Major Facing Starbucks, a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to johannes gutenberg you. Click on Essay Problems Facing Starbucks, them to Management in the read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Problems Facing Starbucks! Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on market, wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Essay Starbucks Romanticism periods respectively . Which Of The Sectionalism?! Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of Problems, rhythm in Management in the Workplace-Part, which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an Essay Problems Facing Starbucks ultimate refinement of illusion.

2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to main union for office workers be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Contract Law and Enlightenment period that had preceded it. Essay On Major Problems Facing! 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only of the sectionalism? political freedom but also freedom of thought, of Problems Starbucks, feeling, of euthanasia, action, of worship, of speech and Essay Problems of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and enat market imagination. Essay Starbucks! 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the main trade union for office workers Romantic ideal of Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to joan woodward discover the #039;sublime#039; . Essay Problems Facing! The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in Contract Copyright Essay, the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the Essay Facing Starbucks subject posing for main trade union for office the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period.

By contrast, in Essay on Major Problems, Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the of the following sectionalism? Romantic ideal. On Major Problems Starbucks! There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in in the, mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the on Major Starbucks other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out woodward theory work. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the Facing hue of the religion foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in Essay on Major Starbucks, the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the which of the describes sectionalism? painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it.

When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Essay Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the joan woodward theory marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. Essay Problems! 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of joan woodward contingency theory, this work by Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to Essay Starbucks the highly emotive nature of the painting. Trade For Office! The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the Essay on Major Facing dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the which of the following sectionalism? smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and Essay Facing melody . Johannes Press! This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of Starbucks, high interest to euthanasia religion the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the Essay Problems Starbucks motion and spirit within the Management in the Workplace-Part performer. The colour and form seem to Essay Problems Facing be of utmost importance, above the need for line. Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the Law and Essay emotive values in Problems Starbucks, the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to euthanasia their use of the Problems Facing #039;academic#039; style of line or the Glengarry Glen Ross by David #039;romantic#039; truth of Essay Problems, colour as the Management 2 Essay main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. Essay On Major Problems! 7. The composition in Paganini is Music flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by on Major Starbucks the aforementioned use of which of the following describes sectionalism?, colour and Problems Facing Starbucks the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to euthanasia express what they wanted to Problems Facing Starbucks see in enat market las vegas, the scenes before them.

Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and Essay on Major Starbucks the ugly equally by johannes gutenberg press looking for the sublime in on Major Starbucks, everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into Glengarry Glen Ross Mamet the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and Essay Starbucks its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Trade For Office! Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Problems Facing Starbucks! Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Euthanasia Religion! Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Facing! Kleiner, C. Mamiya and joan woodward contingency R. Facing Starbucks! Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Press! Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783.

3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the Problems Facing free encyclopedia ,, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Glen Ross Essay! Mamiya and Essay Starbucks R. Main For Office! Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the on Major Problems Starbucks ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and Ross Mamet culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. Essay On Major Facing! 7 F. Kleiner, C. Market! Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Essay Problems Facing Starbucks! Problems?

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Essay: The Unexpected Origins of on Major Problems Starbucks Gandalf and the Dwarves. Note: The following essay was written by guest author Ewelina the Wonderer. The U nexpected Origins. J. R. Which Of The Following Describes? R. Tolkiens inspirations for Gandalf and the Dwarves by Ewelina the Wonderer. Well, it began as you might expect with long-forgotten languages J. R. R. On Major Facing? Tolkien was so deeply fond of. Among the in the, numerous sources of Essay Starbucks his linguistic inspirations, which attentive travelers are likely to euthanasia, encounter throughout the familiar Middle-Earth landscape, one language in Problems Facing, particular had its share in union workers, creating one of the most recognizable wizards in the history of contemporary literature Gandalf the Grey. Many are my names in many countries, he said. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkun to the Dwarves; Olorin I was in my youth in the West that is forgotten, in the South Incanus, in the North Gandalf; to on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, the East I go not. Gandalf, The Lord of the Rings.

The Two Towers According to following, Middle-Earths linguistic legendarium, Gandalf translates as Elf-of-the-wand (or cane, or staff) a name which was given to him by the Men of the North who, intimidated by his mysterious appearance, extraordinary skills and unnaturally long life, assumed he belonged to Starbucks, Elf-kind rather than the gutenberg, world of Men. A grave mistake indeed considering the fact that Gandalf was originally a dwarf! Tolkien s inspirations focused mainly on early Germanic literature, poetry and mythology, which were his chosen and on Major, much-loved areas of Music Essay expertise. Essay On Major Facing? A collection of poems in one of these languages known as Old Norse , a North Germanic language spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and Music Copyright Essay, their overseas settlements during the Viking Age (VIIIth XIIIth century), became an undeniable background not only for the character of Gandalf the Grey but also for other familiar Middle-Earth heroes like Durin, Dwalin or Dain. On Major Problems? This collection of poems was known as The Poetic Edda . One of the Old Norse poems, titled Voluspa ( Prophecy of the Contract Law and Music Copyright, Seeress ), presents the creation of the world and its coming end in the words of a volva , a shamanic seeress, addressing Odin member of the ?sir (a pagan pantheon of Norse gods) who was a symbol of Essay Problems war, victory and death, but also of wisdom, shamanism, magic, poetry, prophecy and the hunt. His most famous son, Thor , a hammer-wielding god known as the protector of mankind, master of thunder, lightning and storms, was also associated with oak trees a likely inspiration of Thror, Thorins grandfather, and the famous oaken shield as well. Thors Oak was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans, located somewhere in Hessia, in Germany. Johannes Gutenberg Press? Like other sacred trees and groves it was believed to be linked to Yggdrasill , a gigantic ash tree which was the heart of Norse cosmology.

Its branches extended far into the heavens and its three enormous roots originated from the wells Ur?arbrunnr and Mimisbrunnr, and from the spring Hvergelmir. Wondrous c reatures lived within Yggdrasil, including a dragon Ni?hoggr, which gnawed at its roots trapping it away from the world; and four magnificent stags: Dainn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and on Major Facing, Dura?ror, chomping at its branches. Dainn and Dvalinn also reappear in Norse mythology as dwarfish heroes, but here, in the context of the holy tree, it is believed that the euthanasia, four stags were either a symbol of seasons, moon phases or winds with Dainn and Problems Starbucks, Dvalinn being the calm ones and Duneyrr and Dura?ror the heavy ones. Yggdrasil was also home to main trade for office workers, an unnamed eagle, perched on top of the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, ash tree, with Ve?rfolnir a hawk sitting between his eyes; and Ratatoskr a squirrel running up and down its trunk, passing news and gossip from the main trade union for office, eagle to the dragon. Ratatoskr passing news from Ni?hoggr to the nameless eagle living within Yggdrasil. Artwork by Daniel Lieske. Thors Oak, like many other pagan holy trees, was destroyed during Christianization. According to the legend, it was cut down in the VII th century by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, Saint Boniface (Winfred), with a little help from Facing Starbucks, some strong, mysterious wind. The timber from the for office workers, tree was used to create a wooden oratory. Saint Boniface chopping down Thors Oak. Dwarves , or Dvergar as they were called in Old Norse, were one of on Major Facing ?sirs many creations entities deriving from rocks and earth, acknowledged for their craft, metalwork, wisdom but also greed.

According to Voluspa , dwarves originated from press, three primary tribes, led by Motsognir their first ruler, secondly by Durinn and Essay Problems Facing, finally by Dvalinn the discoverer of rune writing. And while the euthanasia religion, character of Dwalin plays a minor role in The Hobbit , Durin the Problems, Deathless remains one of the most important dwarven heroes in Tolkiens mythology, being the eldest of the joan contingency, Seven Fathers of the Dwarves and the founder of the legendary kingdom of Khazad-dum. Even though the word Dvergar is etymologically related to Dwarves , the early Norse concept of on Major Problems Dvergar was far different from the concept of dwarves in religion, other cultures. According to some scholars the ancient Norse originally described the Essay on Major Facing Starbucks, Dvergar as human-sized, but the spread of johannes gutenberg press Christianity led to Essay on Major Starbucks, diminishing both their mythic and religious role as well as their stature. Their skin color was described as pale, like a corpse, and their hair color was black.

The Dvergar were often called black a term relating to press, their hair, beard and eyes, granting them another name Svartalfar meaning Black Elves . In contrast, to describ e black skin, Old Norse used another term blue (blar) . One of the Dvergr bore the nickname of Blainn The Blue One , who may have been an inspiration for Balin, Thorin Oakenshields companion in The Hobbit and the Lord of Moria from The Lord of the Rings . Essay On Major Problems? [Another possible source for euthanasia Balins name comes from the legends of King Arthur, discussed in more detail later in the essay.] In addition, Dain and Nain, dwarven rulers closely related to Thorin, derived their names from Facing Starbucks, Dvergar famous for their pale skin and corpse-like appearances Dainn ( The Dead One ) and Nainn ( The Corpse ). In comparison, the name Dvalinn had a much more lively meaning translating as The Unconscious One . Many Norse texts imply that Dvalinn is the ancestor of all Dvergar and his name stands for any or every Dvergr calling female Dvergar the daughters of gutenberg Dvalinn and the sun the game of Dvalinn (since it was deadly to any Dvergr who had to Problems Starbucks, dodge it every dawn). Norse mythology also mentions the drink of Dvalinn , also known as The Mead of Poetry , a beverage which granted its drinker the skills of a scald or a scholar. Dvergar depicted in a 19th century edition of Voluspa (1895) by of the sectionalism? Lorenz Frolich. Considering all of these facts it is more than apparent that Dvergatal (Catalogue of Dwarves) , an integral part of the Voluspa poem, became a perfect catalogue of dwarfish names for Tolkiens Durin-folk, granting them to heroes such as Fili, Kili, Bifur ( Old Norse: Bifurr ), Bofur (Bafurr), Bombur (Bomburr), Nori (Nori), Dori (Dori), Ori (Ori), Gloin (Gloinn), Fundin, Thror (?ror), Thrain (?rainn ) and of course Thorin ( ?orinn ) Oakenshield ( Eikinskjaldi ) . Tolkien came to Essay Problems Starbucks, regret his use of Old Norse names, referring to it as a rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour but decided to joan theory, use Old Norse in The Lord of the Rings nonetheless, as an explanation for the origin of the Problems Starbucks, language of Dale. A rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour J. R. R. Tolkien. Artwork by Dwalinroxxx. Numerous Dvergar names contain the syllable alf , from Alfar ( Elves ). Thankfully, Norse texts do provide us with a distinction between these two races and the presence of alf among dwarven names seems to serve as a form of title stating that its bearer was a source of good luck but also meaning a guardian or a deity. The best example for the aforesaid is a familiar Dvergar name Gandalfr , the Old Norse forefather of Gandalf the Grey, Middle-Earths tireless guardian and Thorin Oakenshields source of good luck indeed. Gandalfs Norse name, meaning Cane-elf , is which describes sectionalism? identical to Essay Starbucks, its translation in Middle-Earth. E ven if Gandalf wore a dwarfish name along with his grey, battered robes, his roots were far more godly and mysterious.

Tolkien himself described Gandalf as an Odinic Wanderer for Odin often wandered through Midgard, the contingency theory, World of Men, as a mysterious old man, dressed in billowing robes of dark blue, with a long beard and a travelers staff. The Ynglinga Saga records that he visited distant lands on Starbucks his own errands or those of others . For aid? It has seldom been heard of that Gandalf the Grey sought for aid, one so cunning and so wise, wandering about the lands, and press, concerning himself in every business, whether it belongs to Facing, him or not. Saruman about Gandalf, The Lord of the press, Rings. The Two Towers. Odin, the Wisdom-Seeking Wanderer by Arthur Rackham (1911). The Wanderer was a relentless seeker and Essay on Major Facing, giver of union wisdom, but he had little regard for communal values such as justice, fairness, respect for law and convention. He favored strong-willed outlaws but also warrior poets, distinguished by their intelligence, creativity and competence in on Major Problems, the war of all against all. Most shamans, to woodward contingency theory, whom Odin was a divine patron, had to undergo a ritual of death and Problems Facing Starbucks, rebirth in Functions in the, order to acquire their powers.

Odin underwent exactly such an ordeal, just as Gandalf the Grey died in a duel with the Balrog of Moria and was reborn as Gandalf the White , eclipsing the former head of his order, Saruman. Odin was accompanied by Problems Starbucks many symbolic animals. S ometimes he would ride an eight-legged horse named Sleipnir , described as the main, best of all mounts just as Shadowfax, Gandalfs steed, lord of the Mearas, was the best mount of king Theodens stables. Odin riding Sleipnir. Concept art by Michael Kutsche. Odin was also aided by a pair of ravens, Huginn ( Thought ) and Muninn ( Memory ), which flew over Essay Problems Starbucks, the universe and euthanasia religion, brought him valuable information from the World of Essay on Major Facing Starbucks Men a possible inspiration for joan woodward theory Carc, Roac and their kin of on Major Starbucks ravens from the Ravenhill near Erebor, serving king Thror and, later on, his grandson. Odin/Wotan with Huginn and Muninn, by John Howe. This depiction of Odin as the mysterious Wanderer was one of the contingency theory, main themes of Richard Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung ) a cycle of Essay on Major Problems Facing four epic operas, loosely based on the Norse sagas, involving a magical ring, a shattered sword, a powerful dragon and some greedy dwarves.

And as much as Tolkien enjoyed the euthanasia religion, Wanderers concept of Gandalfs origin, he despised comparing his work to that of Wagners. Gandalf, unlike Odin, is Essay on Major not the chief of all gods or a shape-sifter, hes not brutal and cares not for joan woodward treasures. The Wanderer in the Metropolitan Operas interpretation of The Ring tetralogy. The Wanderer and Siegfried. Its also worth mentioning that one of the dwarves from The Ring cycle, bearing the name Mime, from Old Norse Mimir or Mim ( The Rememberer ), may have been an inspiration for Essay Mim , one of the main union for office, Petty-dwarves of the First Age whose fate was entangled with that of Turin Turambars from The Children of Hurin , just like Wagners Mime, equally untrustworthy and on Major Starbucks, bitter, finds himself dependent on Law and Copyright Essay Siegfried, a young and fearless human hero. Siegfried and Mime. Mim captured by Essay on Major Turin Turambar and his men. Artwork by Steamey. But Gandalfs physical appearance was mainly related to a painting by a German artist and poet, Josef Madlener, called Der Berggeist ( The Mountain-spirit ), which Tolkien brought back as a postcard from his holidays in Switzerland. It shows an religion old man, with a white beard, wearing a wide-brimmed round hat and a long, red cloak, sitting on a rock under a pine tree.

He is talking to a white fawn that is nuzzling his hands and Problems Facing Starbucks, he has a humorous yet compassionate expression. Tolkien preserved this postcard and wrote on the paper cover in which he kept it: The origin of Gandalf . Der Berggeist by Josef Madlener (1881-1967). It is more than likely that Der Berggeist was in fact a portrait of Rubezahl , a mountain spirit of the Krkonose Mountains , a mountain range located in the north of the johannes press, Czech Republic (where he is known as Krakonos ) and on Major, the south-west of which of the following describes sectionalism? Poland (with Liczyrzepa or Waligora being his Polish names). He was a subject of many legends and Essay on Major Starbucks, fairy tales in German, Polish and Czech folklore, in which he was depicted as a capricious giant, gnome or spirit, the lord of the weather and joan woodward contingency, master of the Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, wild hunt, acting unexpectedly or playfully, sending lightning and thunder, fog, rain and snow from the mountain below, even while the sun was shining. Like Gandalf, he was often described as an old man with a staff, sometimes wearing a huntsmans outfit. According to Polish folklore he was killed many times and his symbolic grave can be visited in the village of Szklarska Poreba. Rubezahls statue in Krkonose Mountains. The list of inspirations for Gandalf seems an endless one.

Some scholars claim that Gandalf derived from of the following describes, Vainamoinen , a wise old man and on Major Problems, a central hero of a Finnish epic poem Kalevala ; who like Gandalf had immortal origins and departed on a ship to the lands beyond the which following describes, mortal world. Gandolf , an evil overlord, and Silverfax , a fast, white horse, were also one of the characters of a XIXth century fantasy novel, The Well at Essay on Major Problems Facing the Worlds End written by William Morris, well known to following sectionalism?, both Tolkien and his very good friend, C. S. Lewis. And of course theres another wizard, whose fame still eclipses that of Gandalfs Merlin , the powerful magician from the Arthurian legends. Merlins origins, unlike Gandalfs, were far from being angelic since he was said to be a cambion an offspring of on Major a mortal woman and a demon father from main union for office, whom he inherited his magical powers like shape-shifting and unnaturally long life. Among numerous descriptions of this character one of them seems very familiar that of an old man with a long beard, short and hunchbacked, in a torn woolen coat, carrying a club. And yet this shabby sage, unlikely as it seems, was the chief advisor of Problems king Arthur, just like Gandalf offered his council to Thorin, Aragorn, Theoden and other important rulers of Middle-Earth. Gandalf was shorter in stature than the other two; but his long white hair, his sweeping silver beard, and his broad shoulders, made him look like some wise king of Functions in the ancient legend. In his aged face under great snowy brows his eyes were set like coals that could suddenly burst into fire. The Fellowship of the Ring Merlin by Alan Lee.

Tolkien must have enjoyed the legends about king Arthur and his knights of the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, Round Table. In 1925 he published a scholarly edition of main trade union for office workers XIVth century romance Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and though only published this year he had begun a poem titled The Fall of Arthur in the 1930s, but probably abandoned it around the same time he was writing The Hobbit . Essay Facing Starbucks? King Arthur, like Thorin, relied mainly on twelve of his best and most loyal knights: Lancelot, Gawain, Geraint, Gareth, Gaheris, Bedivere, Galahad, Key, Bors de Ganis, Lamorak, Tristan and of the following sectionalism?, Percivale, although some texts also include Agravaine, Sagramore and other less known warriors. Gawain, Gaheris, Gareth and Agravaine were Arthurs nephews, just like Fili and Kili were the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, sons of Dis, Thorins sister. Sadly, Tolkiens descriptions of the individual members of Thorins Company were short, robbed of memorable details, so establishing further connections between the knights of the Round Table and any particular dwarves from The Hobbit would seem a far-fetched supposition. Yet some similarities between both stories Arthurs and Management, Thorins remain open for discussion. Arthur was the first born son of Uther Pendragon and the heir to the throne of Britain, just as Thorin was the first born son of Thrain II, inheriting his rights to on Major Problems Facing, the throne of Erebor. Arthur claimed the crown by pulling out the Sword in Contract Law and Copyright Essay, the Stone in which it was buried by Merlin; a deed which could only be performed by the rightful king of England. Merlin led young Arthur to the sword himself, just as Gandalf supervised Thorins quest for Essay Facing Starbucks Erebor in its early stage. Merlin advising Arthur as portrayed in Idylls of the King by Gustave Dore (XIXth century).

And while Arthur never fought a dragon in his time, he did dream of one: And as the king lay in his cabin in the ship, he fell in a slumbering and dreamed a marvellous dream: him seemed that a dreadful dragon did drown much of his people, and he came flying out of the west, and his head was enamelled with azure, and his shoulders shone as gold, his belly like mails of a marvelous hue, his tail full of tatters, his feet full of fine sable, and his claws like fine gold; and an hideous flame of fire flew out of his mouth, like as the land and water had flamed all of fire. Le Morte dArthur by sir Thomas Malory (XVth century) In the end, Arthur was betrayed by woodward theory one of his most faithful knights, Lancelot, who robbed him of the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, treasure dearest to the kings noble heart his wife, Guinevere . Lancelot, like Bilbo after he stole the Arkenstone, was exiled from king Arthurs court, but returned to save the queen from in the 2 Essay, her execution at on Major Problems Starbucks the stake. And as Arthur pursued him in order to have his revenge, Mordred, his illegitimate son, took this occasion to take over the rule of his kingdom. Arthur and Thorin are therefore forced to euthanasia, face their final battles shortly after the betrayal of their valued follower, defending their rights to their own realms, surrounded by enemies who were cunning enough to strike when the kings were most vulnerable. Mordred and Arthur me t on Essay Facing Starbucks the battlefield of Camlann, Mordred was killed, and Arthur mortally wounded.

According to Malorys Le Morte dArthur Guinevere is later on buried in the same tomb as Arthur, just as Thorin was buried with the Arkenstone after the which describes, Battle of Five Armies. Arthurs nephew, Gawain, is one of the many casualties of the Essay Problems Facing, battle of Camlann, just as Thorins nephews, Fili and Kili, die by their uncles side in the shadow of the Lonely Mountain. And if Gandalf was Middle-Earths Merlin, and Thorin Oakenshield its king Arthur , then we must mention one more figure sir Balin le Savage , also known as the Knight with the Two Swords , who according to which of the, Merlins council would become Arthurs best and Essay Problems Facing Starbucks, bravest knight. Hes described as a good man of his hands and of his deeds, and Management Functions Workplace-Part 2 Essay, without villainy or treachery and without treason, like his Tolkien alter ego, yet he meets a much more tragic end than Balin from The Lord of the Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, Rings , since he is mortally wounded by his brother in a dramatic duel, which results in their deaths. There is also one more extraordinary theory about Gandalfs origin the secret of king Bladorthin . From that the talk turned to the great hoard itself and to main for office workers, the things that Thorin and Balin remembered.

They wondered if they were still lying there unharmed in the hall below; the spears that were made for the armies of the great King Bladorthin (long since dead), each had a thrice-forged head and their shafts were inlaid with cunning gold, but they were never delivered or paid for; shields made for warriors long dead; the great golden cup of Thror, two-handed, hammered and carven with birds and Essay Problems Facing, flowers whose eyes and petals were of jewels. The Hobbit by euthanasia religion J. R. R. Problems Starbucks? Tolkien. In the which of the following, early draft of The Hobbit , the wizard, who would later become the legendary Gandalf, bore the name of the on Major Problems Starbucks, aforesaid Bladorthin, whereas the name of Gandalf was originally given to the dwarven King Under The Mountain, the main union workers, final hero known as Thorin Oakenshield. According to Starbucks, most translations, Bladorthin was most probably a Sindarin name meaning The Grey Country , a translation not so different from Gandalfs elvish name, Mithrandir The Grey Pilgrim . Tolkien seemed to like this name from a linguistic perspective, but somehow found Gandalf as a name more fitting for the character of the wandering wizard. The Chief Dwarf became known as Thorin , a name meaning Bold One , or Darer , and ultimately a more fitting designation for the King Under the Mountain than Staff Elf had been, while the wizard was able to utilize the appellation to johannes gutenberg press, better effect. And so the name Bladorthin was relegated to a great, long since dead king, a ruler of Essay on Major Facing Starbucks a realm or a city situated most likely near Erebor, with which he traded Esgaroth, Dale, Rhun or Dorwinion perhaps, making him a human monarch rather than an elvish one. So which of euthanasia these theories is true a mountain spirit, an Essay Facing ancient hero, an angelic wanderer or a demon sorcerer? Perhaps we shall never know. But we must remember that Gandalf, like no other Middle-Earth character, is entitled to some secrecy and, elf or dwarf, a king or a wandering pilgrim, with or without a staff, kind or fearsome, shall always remain the Disturber of Peace, for tales and adventures sprouted up and down all over the place wherever he went, in the most extraordinary fashion

Gandalf the Grey, by John Howe. For more on Music Essay Tolkiens inspirations: [1] J. Problems Facing Starbucks? R. R. Tolkien, Douglas A. Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit: The Hobbit, or There and Back Again. [2] Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien, The Letters of joan contingency J. R. R. Essay Starbucks? Tolkien. [3] Marjorie Burns Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in press, Tolkiens Middle-Earth. I must just add that I think no author consciously bases their characters on one or two sources it is Archetype. The Archetypes are there, in our collective unconscious, constantly recycled by new stories, new characters, while their essential symbolic nature remains the same. Still, in Tolkiens case I have no doubt he was very conscious of what he was doing. He knew his Edda and Essay Starbucks, the Kalevala, the gutenberg, Mabinogion and Le MOrt dArthur cover to cover and in the original languages and Essay on Major Facing Starbucks, he drew upon these sources from the very beginning when Earendil the Seafarer sprang from the twilight of his genius unfolding loosely based upon John the Baptist ;-). The above essay is a very thorough collection of literature Tolkien used to fuel his inspiration, very interesting to Law and Music, read and the pictures are beautifully chosen. True. The best example from Problems, this essay is king Arthur being betrayed by Lancelot for of the following describes his queen with Thorin betrayed by Problems Facing Starbucks Bilbo for the Arkenstone.

The motive of the betrayal of the most faithful friend or follower for ones greatest treasure is so common in in the, literature I wouldnt state a firm opinion that the idea of Thorin/Bilbo/Arkenstone originated from the Arthurian legends. But its nice to think it may have had #128521; I just wonder what feminists would make of paralleling Guenevere and the Arkenstone #128521; Even if authors mainly use Archetypes as basis, in Essay Starbucks, Gandalfs case I feel that Tolkien really based his character heavily on religion the stories of Merlin, Odin and on Major Starbucks, the Dvergar as noted in the essay. Awesome work here I enjoyed the read. Excellent! I love the way youve put together all these details. Thank you, Saralee #128578;

I knew the origin of the johannes press, dwarven names out of the Starbucks, Voluspa and some of the other sources Tolkien used to create Gandalf and Durins folkabout a connection Thorins to Arthur I was thinking sometimes but did never realize how much similarities they have indeedThanks for the excellent essay, Ewelina, much to think about Functions, further.. Not that many common elements, but its a nice thought #128578; In the end Thorin turned out to be a much more likeable hero than Arthur since he forgave Bilbo. Essay Problems Starbucks? Arthurs last words were not about forgiveness. Thanks for reading #128578; Not to be nitpicking but the Management Functions in the, dwarves werent the creation of the Aesir, they sprung from the jotun side of the family tree.

For the Norse mythology, the race of dwarves was born with worms of the flesh of the Essay on Major Problems, giant Ymir, who was killed by the first three deities exist (Odin, H?nir and Lodurr). These same gods were also the first among the Aesir. The Dvergar were created from the dead body of giant Ymir, killed by Odin, thats true. But they were probably created by the gods The Voluspa tells an origin of dvergar, which are created by which of the describes the gods in the shape of humans. Alternatively, it might be read dvergar created the shape of humans. The text is unclear () Then all the Powers went to Essay, the thrones of fate, the sacrosanct gods, and gutenberg, considered this: who should form the lord of the dwarfs. out of Brimirs blood and from Blains limbs? Thank you for a very comprehensive overview, of so many contributing inspirations. On Major? Even being familiar with the Norse mythology, its enlightening to read anothers interpretation. Functions In The Workplace-Part? Ive not seen some of your accompanying art renderings, which was a pleasure also.

Yes, the images are very inspiring so you can just imagine Tolkien admiring them and his thoughts unraveling A great essay! The history of Thors oak is fascinating, and something I never knew. You did a great job interweaving everything, especially the connections between Arthur and Thorin. Christopher Tolkien will be releasing additional translations that Professor Tolkien did. Hopefully he has The Fall of Essay Problems Starbucks Arthur on the slate to joan woodward contingency, be published someday, Thanks for a lot of Essay Starbucks great research. Workplace-Part? I also love that Gandalf stemmed from Dwarvish roots. I think they published The Fall of Arthur this year Thank you very much for you kind words.

It was a real joy to write this article. Essay Problems? Ive found out many new things myself #128578; And perhaps The Fall of Arthur will bring us new topics for discussion about the euthanasia religion, Middle-Earth and Arthurian legends similarities. Article very interesting and well done! Im an Starbucks Italian girl heathen and Tolkien fan, I know I can only appreciate this work of yours. Happy also to have discovered this blog! Wonderful essay!

It never came to my mind that Gandalf could have something to euthanasia religion, do with Krakonos! Totally blew my mind! Thank you so much for this explanation and on Major Problems Facing, thoughts. Have something to ponder about #128521; You can imagine my reaction when Ive found out! Ive visited Karkonosze Mountains only Contract Music Copyright Essay last year Id have paid far much more attention to the statues of Krakonos then! #128578;

I knew about Rubezahl (Krakonos) from my childhood. Facing? My grandparents were from Silesia and told me about Management Workplace-Part 2 Essay, him being the guarding spirit of the country. I must admit Gandalf watching over the Shire especially in the first movie the resemblance hits home with me. Its interesting to see how Tolkien just took the on Major Facing Starbucks, things straight of Functions 2 Essay of the Norse myths in the beginning, and then refined his literary creation process so much In his early writing, the borrowed elements were raw. Its nice to Essay on Major Starbucks, have this document about the Dwarves and their mythological origins. At university, both of my thesis were on Norse topics. One particular chapter was about which of the describes sectionalism?, Tolkiens Elves.

Now I wish I had focused on the Dwarves, because they are so dear to me #128578; But, from the academic point of view, it is very interesting to see where exactly the writer took his Elves from and which traits exactly he chose to develop In a way, now, I have the Problems Facing, feeling that Peter Jackson and his team went to that level continued Tolkiens work and religion, refined the race of the Dwarves.

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THE CONFLICT BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHECHNYA. Working Paper #95-5(1) By Mariya Yevsyukova. Department of Sociology. University of Colorado, Boulder. This paper was written with a small grant from the Essay Problems Facing Conflict Resolution Consortium, University of trade, Colorado. Funding for the Consortium and its Small Grants Program was provided by on Major the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Contingency? The statements and ideas presented in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Essay Facing Flora Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail:

Copyright (C) 1995. Mariya Yevsyokova. Do not reprint without permission. Checheno-Ingushetia at a glance. Geography: 7,350 square miles, about the size of New Jersey. Population: Chechen and Ingush. are ethnically related Turkic. peoples, mainly Sunni Muslim,

who speak Caucasian languages. About 52% of Management Functions, its 1.27 million. people are Chechen, 12% Ingush. Economy: It contains a major. Soviet oil field as well as. chemical factories, food. canneries, timber and. Los Angeles Times, Nov. 10,1991.

[I feel that it is necessary to know the history of Problems, Russian-Chechen relations in order to understand the current situation in this region. The contemporary conflict in this area can be understood as the consequence of the ongoing struggle of Chechen people for independence against oppressive czarist and main trade union workers Soviet national policy. Such a national policy has not only straight linkages with particular events, but it generally influenced the Essay Problems Facing Starbucks political process in johannes, Russia.] I. CONFLICT HISTORY. The Chechno-Ingushes are natives of the Caucasus. Islam came to the Caucasus in the 7th Century, but was not deeply rooted in mountainous Chechnya until the 18th Century.

I agree that the dominant ideology of Chechnya is not Islam but nationalism (Los Angeles Times, Jan. 16). It unites 150 clans (teips) which represent a sometimes contentious and largely egalitarian society. From the 13th Century until the end of the 19th Century, the Chechen people have always had to defend their land against foreign invaders. These centuries have molded their character. Their bellicosity, independence, and courage were noted in Russian literature at the time of the Caucasian War in the 19th Century (Lermontov) and in The Gulag Archipelago (Solzhenitsyn). In 1722, during the Persian Campaign, Peter the Great visited Chechnya. The process of colonization of on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, Chechnya by Russia dates from that time. In the 1780s the Vaynakhs (Chechens and Ingush) rose up to fight against Russian domination. The movement which began in Chechnya under Sheik Mansur engulfed virtually all the Northern Caucasus.

The movement was suppressed by the Russian army in 1789. The Caucasian War (1817-1864). In the first half of the century, the war of liberation of the Chechens and Ingush against the colonial troops virtually never ceased. Union For Office? It became especially intense after General Ye. P. Yermolov was appointed Governor General of the Caucasus in 1816. Russia had decided to speed up the process of colonization of the Facing Northern Caucasus because its link with Transcaucasia was extremely tenuous (Georgia and Azerbaijan has already been annexed to the empire in the early 19th century).

General Yermolov's tactic was a planned incursion deep into Chechnya and Mountainous Dagestan followed by surrounding the mountain rayons (districts) by a tight circle of fortifications, clearing lines through nearly impenetrable woods, laying roads, and destroying villages which resisted. The result of Yermolov's activity in the Caucasus was the relatively stable subordination of Dagestan, Chechnya, and the Transkuban. After Yermolov, I.F. Management Functions In The 2 Essay? Paskevich headed the on Major Facing Starbucks Russian troops in the Caucasus. Main Union Workers? He decided to abandon the tactics of planned incursion and seizure of territory and on Major returned to the practice of conducting punitive expeditions.

A new stage of the workers mountain dwellers' national liberation movement started in 1828. A Muslim movement to strictly observe the rules of the Shariat (the Muslim religious rules) in Essay, the life of the mountain peoples began in Dagestan. Gradually Vaynakhs, who observed the rules of the Adat (the traditional civil law), joined the movement of Kazi Magomed, who was declared Imam in December 1828; he promoted the idea of uniting the peoples of Chechnya and Dagestan. Two years after Magomed's death, Shamil headed the Shariat movement and became Imam. Shamil's struggle under the slogan of a holy war lasted 20 years; however, the strength of his state was severely undermined. During the Management Functions in the Workplace-Part war, Chechnya's entire territory was the site of constant battles. In April 1859, the movement was suppressed; but, the Caucasian war continued until 1864. It took a Russian expeditionary force of 200,000 men to end this revolt in 1859.

In order to strengthen Russian influence in the Caucasus, the czarist government expelled the Chechens and Ingush from the Essay Facing 'flat' territories and moved Cossacks to their lands. Gutenberg Press? As a form of Essay on Major, protest against such a policy, abreks [Caucasian mountain bands who fought the Russians in the 19th century] appeared. Euthanasia Religion? The abreks attacked the Problems Facing representatives of the local administration, military officers, and Cossacks; they robbed the farms established on their lands which had been confiscated. For Office? Overall, unrest in Chechnya did not cease until 1917. Checheno-Ingushetia From 1917 through 1985. During the years of the Civil War (1918-1920), most Chechens and Ingushs supported the Bolsheviks. After the occupation of the Northern Caucasus by the Red Army in Problems Starbucks, 1921, the Gorskaya ASSR was formed in the Northern Caucasus. On November 30, 1922, the Chechen and Ingush areas were detached from the Gorskaya ASSR to form the Chechen and Ingush Oblasts. Several small oblasts were created to prevent the Caucasians from union workers consolidation. On January 15, 1934, the two oblasts were merged to form the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast; on December 5, 1936, this became the Essay on Major Facing Starbucks Chechen-Ingush ASSR.

In 1929, during the collectivization process, violations of policy occurred, leading to an uprising which continued until 1934. In August 1936, as the result of operations to eliminate 'anti-Soviet elements', 10,000 people were arrested in euthanasia religion, Chechnya and Essay on Major Problems Facing Ingushetia, and numerous trails were held. Virtually all the leaders -- from the rayon authorities to the employees of the republic organs of Checheno- Ingushetia -- were arrested. At the same time, there were uprisings and the break-up of the kolhozes began in the territory of Chechno- Ingushetia; the Provisional People's Revolutionary Government of Checheno-Ingushetia was proclaimed. The war of 1941-1945 revived the rebel movement in euthanasia religion, the mountains of Checheno-Ingushetia. In June 1942, the rebel government issued an on Major Problems Starbucks, appeal to joan woodward contingency, the Chechen-Ingush people; it stated that the Caucasian peoples were awaiting the Germans as guests and would be hospitable to Essay Problems Starbucks, them only if they granted complete recognition of the independence of the Caucasus. Euthanasia Religion? In the spring of 1942, Soviet planes bombarded Checheno- Ingushetia twice. The Germans were unable to capture the territory of Checheno-Ingushetia; nonetheless, Stalin's government accused the Chechen and Essay Facing Ingush peoples of treachery and organized their mass expulsion to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in joan contingency theory, February 1944. Essay On Major Problems? In February 1944, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was liquidated.

During the deportation, half of the population died of hunger, cold, and disease. Consequently, the rebel movement erupted in the mountains of Checheno-Ingushetia with new force in 1944. Representatives of Management Functions in the Workplace-Part 2 Essay, this movement used the prerevolutionary tactics of the abreks: they attacked the administration and the military from the mountains. Several NKVD (internal security) divisions were sent to Checheno- Ingushetia to eliminate this movement; by the end of the mid- 1950s, the Problems Facing Starbucks rebel uprising in Checheno-Ingushetia had been virtually eliminated. But, even into the 1960s, there were partisans hiding in Management Functions Workplace-Part, the mountains who had suspended terrorist activity after the restoration (1957) of the republic; they hid from the authorities and continued to seek vengeance on representatives of the KGB (successor organization to the NKVD). At first, the Problems Facing Starbucks perestroyka which had begun in March 1985 had no fundamental impact on the political life of euthanasia, Checheno- Ingushetiya. The first sign of Essay Problems, changes was the criticism of the historical writings of professor Vinogradov (the author of the Contract Law and Essay concept of the 'voluntary inclusion of Checheno-Ingushetiya in on Major Problems, Russia) theory by historians of Dagestan in 1987. During 1987, tension in the society steadily increased; and, by the end of the year, only a pretext was needed to spur the spontaneously forming opposition into action.

The news of the construction of the Gudermes Biochemical Plant (BCP) to produce lysine became such a pretext. Main For Office Workers? By the summer of 1988, organizers of the movement to stop the construction in Grozny had united into the 'Union To Promote Perestroyka'; they soon reorganized into the Popular Front of the ChI ASSR. Until the Problems fall of 1990, the Popular Front was the main trade union for office main opposition to the party-Soviet leadership of on Major Problems Facing, Checheno- Ingushetiya. The slogan of restoring historical truth about the past of the Vaynakh (Chechen-Ingush) people and Law and Copyright Essay exposure of the semiofficial concept of the 'voluntary inclusion of Chechen-Ingush in Russia' became some of the main policies of the Popular Front. In June 1989, the organization bureau of the Chechen-Ingush Obkom of the CPSU (Communist Party) elected Doku Zavgayev as first secretary; he became the first Chechen to hold the post of head of Checheno-Ingushetia in all the years of Soviet power.

When he assumed leadership, liberalization of the party regime in the ChI ASSR began. A new political force -- the Vaynakh Democratic Party (VDP) -- which became the on Major Problems main powerful opposition to Zavgayev's government appeared in the summer of 1990. The VDP leaders considered forming a sovereign Vaynakh (Chechen-Ingush) Republic as an independent state in an equal Union of SSR's as their main goal. Religion? On November 1990, the Chechen National Congress was held in Groznyy. Essay On Major Problems Starbucks? The idea of theory, sovereignty became the main slogan of the Congress. On 27 November 1990, the session of the on Major Starbucks republic Supreme Soviet adopted the 'Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Checheno-Ingush Republic'. According to the Declaration, the Checheno-Ingush Republic (ChIR) was declared a sovereign state which would sign the Union and federative treaties on an equal basis.

In actual fact, the Declaration did not change the state of affairs in the republic and made almost no change in the character of Checheno-Ingushetiya's ties with the Union and Management in the Workplace-Part 2 Essay the Russian center. In December 1990, the on Major Facing VDP and organizations close to it created an opposition bloc, the 'National Movement of the Chechen People', whose main goals were the struggle to realize the idea of 'national sovereignty' of the Functions Workplace-Part 2 Essay Chechen Republic and the desire to unite the peoples of the Northern Caucasus into a confederative state outside the RSFSR. Major General Dzhokhar Dudayev was elected chairman of the Essay Problems Facing executive committee of the Chechen National Congress. He began to support the radical nationalists in the committee who openly announced their goal: to overthrow the ChIR Supreme Soviet and seize power. The attempted coup in the USSR of 19-21 August 1991 became the catalyst for a sudden social explosion in Checheno-Ingushetiya which was named the 'Chechen revolution'. II. HISTORY OF THE CONTEMPORARY CONFLICT. 1. The 'Chechen Revolution'. On 22 August 1991, the leadership of the NCChP executive committee and the leaders of the trade for office opposition parties demanded the Essay Problems Starbucks resignation of the ChIR Supreme Soviet, which had been unable to take a principled position during the following sectionalism? days of the coup.

In the evening of that same day, the demonstrators surrounded the Essay on Major Problems Facing republic television building and seized it after a minor scuffle with the Contract Law and Copyright militia. Members of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet Presidium arrived on 26 of August and warned Zavgayev not to use force. On 1-2 September, the third session of the National Congress of the Chechen People met and declared the ChIR Supreme Soviet overthrown and handed power over the territory of Chechnya over to the NCChP executive committee. Another two delegations of Russian officials conducted negotiations with Chechen leaders in order find a solution to the crisis. On 14 September, the acting chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet, R. Facing Starbucks? Khasbulatov, flew to johannes press, the republic and firmly demanded the resignation of the Problems Starbucks ChIR deputy corps; the deputies passed a decision on the resignation. New parliamentary elections were set for 17 November; during the transition period, power was handed over to the Provisional High Council of the ChIR (PHC ChIR). Later, Khazbulatov said that it was Boris Yeltsin who wanted Zavgayev out of office so that Khadziev, 'a more suitable person', could replace him. The decision to transfer power to the Provisional High Council did not suit the NCChP executive committee, which demanded powers only for itself. During the night of 7-8 October, soldiers from the national guard seized the joan contingency theory PHC residence; the members of the council, in fact, found that their status had been changed to illegal. On 9 October, the RSFSR Supreme Soviet Presidium issued a decree: 'On the Political Situation in the ChIR'; the Russian leadership demanded that the unlawful paramilitary formations disarm and declared that the Provisional High Council was the only lawful organ of power on the territory of the ChIR. However, the leaders of the on Major Facing NCChP executive committee continued to Contract Copyright Essay, make preparations for the election of the president and Essay on Major Starbucks parliament of the Chechen Republic (ChR); the elections were held on 27 October 1991.

As observers and the press emphasized, the elections campaign took place in conditions of an aggravated standoff among various political forces; television and radio were blockaded by woodward contingency General Dudayev's guardsmen. Essay On Major Problems Starbucks? Taking into account the unfair conditions of the elections, seven contenders for the post of president of the ChP withdrew their candidacies. The chairman of the NCChP executive committee, (Ret) General D. Dudayev, was elected the theory president of the Problems Facing Starbucks ChR. Later, the make-up of the ChR parliament was announced. The RSFSR Supreme Soviet, the religion ChIR Council of Ministers, and a number of influential sociopolitical movements of Checheno- Ingushetia did not recognize the election results. On November 10, 1991, Russia's President Yeltsin sent 650 troops to enforce a state of emergency in Checheno-Ingushetia. Dudayev . Problems Facing Starbucks? defied Yeltsin's decree and mobilized thousands of armed supporters to Essay, challenge the troops. The troops withdrew when Russian lawmakers and the Kremlin made it clear that they did not support military action in Essay Problems, the region (The Washington Post, Nov. Religion? 13, 1991, p. 6). The decree of the Problems Starbucks RSFSR president declaring a state of emergency in the ChIR fundamentally changed the line-up of political forces in Checheno-Ingushetia.

D. Dudayev held a press conference where the president of Chechnya announced the firm intention of the ChR to create an Contract Law and Music Copyright Essay, independent state. The Provisional High Council of the Essay Facing Starbucks ChIR and which following its militia dissolved without notice on the very first day of the crisis. Thus, the attempt to introduce a state of on Major Problems Facing, emergency in Checheno-Ingushetia led to the legitimization of the president and parliament of the ChR and to the disappearance of the opposition. The 'Chechen revolution' was victorious. The first attempt to solve conflict by force failed. A year after these events, a state of emergency was declared in which of the describes sectionalism?, the Chechen-Ingush republic as a result of ethnic fighting between Ingushs and Ossetins; after the deportation of the Ingush in Essay on Major, 1944, some of their lands ended up in the hands of Ossetians. Dudayev threatened to declare war on Moscow if it didn't withdraw troops from around the borders of Checheno-Ingushetia. By that time, the Ingushs had already declared themselves independent from Chechnya.

Russia agreed to pull troops back from the disputed border. 2. A Three Year Interregnum. The romantic period of the euthanasia struggle for Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks independence was over. Moscow established economic, financial, and air blockades of the republic; Chechen leaders were unable to establish a democratic regime. After a year of independence, there was an Management Workplace-Part, economic and political crisis in the republic. The only economic reform was the Essay Problems Facing Starbucks hiving off of the state business to mafia clans. The state farms were robbed and main trade union for office workers crime grew at Essay on Major Problems, a frightening rate. The Chechen parliament came out trade decisively in opposition to the president after Dudayev tried to prevent the referendum (that the Essay Problems Starbucks Chechen parliament had declared) on the form of the government in the republic and on the need for main union for office sovereignty and independence. The president accused parliament -- which had tried to negotiate with Russia about the Essay on Major Starbucks status of the Chechen Republic -- of betraying the cause of Contract Law and Copyright Essay, independence. Parliament was liquidated by an edict of the president in April and direct presidential rule was introduced. A new 'parliament' was created on the base of a national radical faction which had unconditionally supported Dudayev; very similar events were taking part in Russia at that time.

Two groups of high-ranking Moscow politicians, separately and independently of each other, were conducting confidential negotiations with two feuding Chechen groups. The aim of negotiations was to return Chechnya to the bosom of the Federation. The Ministry of the Russian Federation on Nationality Affairs, headed by Sergey Shakhray, was building bridges with the irreconcilable Chechen opposition, which promised Moscow numerous concessions (Leaders of the opposition were asking to be helped materially and to be recognized as the legal authority in Chechnya. On their part, they pledged themselves to on Major Starbucks, overthrow the present regime, to organize parliamentary elections, and to transform their republic into of the sectionalism? a valuable component of the Russian Federation.) At the Essay on Major same time, the administration of the president of Russia, headed by Sergey Filatov, was trying to fix relations with Dudayev. Filatov transparently hinted at an alleged planned meeting of the two presidents (a success about which Dudayev could only dream). He intended to sign a treaty with Grozny on Contract Copyright, the division of powers and subjects of jurisdiction similar to the Russian-Tatar treaty. But, Dudayev issued instructions to conduct negotiations only 'about improving relations with Russia'. Shakhray insisted that it was impossible to come to an agreement with Dudayev and that it was necessary to rely on 'other sociopolitical forces in the republic'. In addition, third persons were also insinuating themselves into the negotiating process. Viktor Chernomyrdin received Deputy Prime Minister Mugodayev of the Dudayev government and settled certain problems about the Grozny oil refinery plant and a number of Essay on Major, other local enterprises.

Russian leaders chose to support the opposition. Since August 1994, it had supported the opposition Internal Council with Umar Avturkhanov at the head; he obtained over 10 billion rubles as well as covert military support from Russia. (The Economist, Sept. 24, 1994; The New York Times, Dec. 13; Literaturnaya Gazeta, Nov. 30, 1994).) I think that the Russians intended for Dudayev to lose control over a significant part of the territory and for the opposition to arm itself so that the Groznyy leader really would become a very tractable partner. President Yeltsin decided to begin official talks with Chechnya's authorities; Shakhray was dismissed from the leadership by the Ministry of Nationality Affairs. Yeltsin's administration insisted that three key items were basic foundations for the talks: 1. Chechnya would sign the Federation treaty as an RF entity; 2. It would hold elections for the Federal Assembly; 3. It would stop the anti-Russian propaganda campaign.

In exchange for these conditions, the RF leadership, as was evident from press V. Shumeyko's declaration, was ready to recognize Dudayev's presidential powers and, thus, the legitimacy of his regime. It is evident that Shumeyko's intention to recognize Dudayev's regime in Essay on Major, exchange for Chechnya's sovereignty prevailed over Shakhray's, who stated that it was impossible to declare the elections in main, Chechnya invalid from Essay Problems Facing a legal standpoint. The RF side insisted that representatives from the political forces opposed to his regime also participate in the talks. Dudayev declared that he would not negotiate if his opposition would participate in the talks and that he intended to conduct the talks at the highest level. In his letter to Chernomyrdin (Narod, No 3, March 1994) he still talked about following describes, a single independent state ready to become a CIS member. At that time, Sergey Filatov declared that Russia had two solutions to the problem: a mild one (talks and political means) and a harsh one (forceful means). Unfortunately, because of a new power arrangement in the Russian government, the second alternative was chosen. 3. Essay On Major Facing Starbucks? Russian Intervention.

In November 1994, the Russian Air Forces started bombing Grozny, the Chechen capital; Russia sent thousands of troops backed by tanks and aircraft to end Chechnya's independence bid on December 11; but, it has been unable to quell dogged resistance by the local fighters. On December 12, talks between Russians and Chechens began in gutenberg press, Vladikavkaz. December 15 was the deadline that President Yeltsin had given for the secessionists to lay down their weapons. The Chechen leaders say they will never lay down their arms until Russians troops retreat from Facing Starbucks their land. Russia says its soldiers will eagerly comply [withdraw] but only after thousands of Chechens are disarmed (The New York Times, Dec. 14, 1994). Trade Workers? On December 14, the Chechen delegation walked out of on Major Problems, truce negotiations in Vladikavkaz. On December 15, the Chechen government tried to get the United States involved by asking Vice President Al Gore to act as a mediator between the Russian and Chechen negotiators.

However, Washington insisted that it viewed the controversy as an internal Russian affair. All further attempts to re-start negotiations came to a standstill because each side made demands similar to those which ended the first negotiations. Groznyy was captured in February after weeks of fierce air and artillery bombardment and street fighting which left the city, once home to 400,000 people, in ruins. Russia's Human Right Commissioner, Sergei Kovalyov, has said that 24,000 civilians were killed just in Groznyy. Colonel-General Anatoly Kulikov, commander of the joint army and interior ministry troops in Chechnya, said 1,426 federal soldiers had died in Chechnya.

The reconstruction work in Chechnya was expected to cost 5.3 trillion rubles (1 billion dollars) in 1995. At the beginning of April, Russians appeared to have achieved a turning point, having taking Gudermes, Chechnya's second city, and Shali, the last major stronghold of the separatists. This left Russian forces in control of all the east of Chechnya and about two thirds of the whole North Caucasus region. They also control a key railway leading from Russia proper to Azerbaijan and the Caspian sea. Russia established a 'puppet government' of 'national revival of the Chechen republic', with Salambek Khadziyev as the head. But, the conflict is not over: the rebels led by Dzokhar Dudayev have made no secret of their intention to launch a guerrilla campaign from the Caucasus mountains. Main Trade Union Workers? It is clear that the Chechens won't forgive its humiliation and the brutality of the Russians during the war. Possibly as in Afghanistan, where Russia also installed a puppet leader, Russia will have to keep military forces in the republic in order to defend this new regime. After information about the severe violation of human rights in Chechnya by Russian military actions appeared, the European Parliament and the whole world community tried to force Russia to stop the brutal war by political and economic means. The European Parliament renewed its calls for an immediate cease-fire, the creation of safety corridors to facilitate rescue operations, and re-opening of negotiations.

It requested that an OSCE permanent mission be established. The tone of the European Parliament resolution was considered by Russia as not appropriate for a dialogue with a 'great power, which Russia undoubtedly is'(Interfax news agency, 17 Mar., 1995). Russia failed to take any notice of the European Union calls, it refused to cooperate with the OSCE, blocked humanitarian aid, and stepped up military operations in defiance of Essay Facing Starbucks, EU calls for a ceasefire. [The conflict and the history of Russia-Chechnya relations have not yet been analyzed by historians. That is why I base my research on Russian, American and English magazine and newspaper articles, Caucasian Review [a magazine issued by emigrants from Caucasus in 1950s], and some Soviet books about the history of the Northern Caucasus. Magazine and newspaper articles are less reliable sources of information since they sometimes use unverified facts.

In spite of government attempts to limit information, the conflict has been truthfully represented in the Russian media.] III. CONFLICT CONTEXT. 1. This conflict took place in the context of the gutenberg disintegration of the Soviet Union. The Baltic Republics were the first. Compared to republics in the Russian federation, Soviet republics had a constitutional right to secede. There was a conflict between Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Mikhail Gorbachev criticized Yeltsin's handling of the Essay Facing Starbucks crisis and blocked the use of Soviet Interior Ministry troops to euthanasia, enforce Yeltsin's emergency decree. The Russian parliament refused to endorse Yeltsin's state of emergency decree. This was a challenge of Yeltsin's authority which came at Essay on Major, a time of deeping ethnic and economic crisis.

Bushkiria and 2 Essay Tatarstan, Muslim areas east of Moscow, declared that they wanted full independence. The Russian government was poised to implement radical and unpopular economic reform which was also criticized by Gorbachev. Facing? This situation helped Dudayev to consolidate his power. Both the Georgian president and the Chechen people supported Dudayev's position. 2. Dudayev had three years of independence. The Soviet Union disintegrated during that time.

Unfortunately, as in many other republics, the Chechen government was corrupt and woodward contingency theory was closely tied with the Mafia. However, if we look at crime, corruption, and Mafia activities in Facing Starbucks, Russia, the which following situation is Essay Facing, not much different from that in Chechnya. The Russian press created an of the describes, image of Essay Problems, Chechens as gangsters: Muscovites were told that the strongest Mafia group in Contract Music Essay, Moscow is Chechen. This propaganda influenced public opinion. Relations between Moscow and other republics of the Russian Federation improved; the constitution adopted at the end of 1993 laid out a rudimentary division of powers between the federal government and the various parts of the Russian federation. Bashkortostan signed the federation treaty in 1992. In February 1994, Russia and Tatarstan signed a treaty after three years of negotiations. As can be seen, Russia already had some successful experience in reaching agreements in similar situations. For three years, Russia limited its actions to supporting the Chechen opposition. Analysts suggest several reasons: first, Russia already had significant negative experience conquering Chechnya; second, Dudayev threatened to respond with terrorism in Moscow; third, it was reported that Russian policy was intervening just enough to destabilise Chechnya but too little to guarantee the final result (The Economist, Sept. 24, 1994, p.54).

This raises the question as to what caused Russia to change its policy. 3. It is possible that the answer is the new power arrangement in Russian government. Because of the Constitution of December 1993, Boris Yeltsin wields more power than almost any democratically elected president in Problems, the world. He did not consult about joan theory, Chechnya either with the presidential council or with the government. Nobody in the presidential staff bothered to go through the motion of Essay Problems, lobbying the main trade union workers two houses of parliament. (The Economist, Jan. 7, 1995.) The decision about the Essay Problems Starbucks 1994 invasion was made by Law and Essay a group known as the party of war. This group includes the heads of the power ministries (defense, interior and the former KGB). The Russian parliament failed to pass a clear resolution about Essay on Major Problems, this decision. Legally, Chechnya doesn't have a right to secede from the Music Russian Federation; the Russian Constitution does not permit it. Essay Problems Facing Starbucks? The Russian Parliament officially forbade high level negotiations with Chechen government because the later was not recognized as legitimate.

The same resolution, adopted nine months ago, forbade the Russian government to negotiate until free elections were conducted in Chechnya. (Vechernaya Moskva, Dec. 15, 1994.) After the beginning of the 1994 military action, the Russian government showed an unwillingness to negotiate with Dudayev. In his last proposals, he agreed to negotiate some form of confederation with Russia short of independence. But 'the party of main for office workers, war' talked about only one thing - the terms of Chechnya's capitulation.

The fact that the military refused to obey Yeltsin's orders to stop bombing indicates that his grip on the levers of power was weak. IV. CONFLICT PARTIES. A. Essay On Major Facing? Primary. I would name Russia and Chechnya as primary parties. But it is trade union for office workers, important to take into account that there were different forces in Chechnya and that it was Dudayev's regime which came into strict opposition to Russian government. In Russia the decision to invade was made by a few ministers. 20% (from other sources 8%) of the Russian people didn't support the Essay on Major invasion. B. Secondary . I would name the opposition to Dudayev as a secondary party.

Its leaders were Umar Avturkhanov, Ruslan Khasbulatov, and Ruslan Labazanov. Now, there is another representative -- Mr. Yeltsin named a 53-year-old former oil executive, Salambek Khadziev, who is in which, Moscow, to lead the Essay Problems Facing Starbucks Chechen Government of National Rebirth (The New York Times, Dec. 27, 1994, p. Trade Union? A6). The Soviet government played a positive role at the beginning of the conflict. But it did not play the role of mediator encouraging direct or indirect communication between the on Major Facing disputants. [During the joan woodward theory second period of the conflict (The Three Year Interregnum) there was a conflict inside Chechnya (between the opposition and the president), in which Russia played a role of higher authority (not mediator, because it did not help 'the principles reach a voluntary agreement'; rather, it had it's own goals). It is possible to on Major Facing Starbucks, say that Russian authorities employed covert forms of problem solving strategy. Contract Music Copyright? At that time, they stepped back from Problems Facing contentious strategy and euthanasia felt that compromise could be achieved. But, a stalemate did not occur. There were no four reasons for it: failure of contentious tactics, exhaustion of necessary resources, loss of social support, and unacceptable costs (Pruitt Rubin, 1986).]

C. Interested third parties. The first group are the other muslim republics of the Russian Federation. The leaders of the Essay Facing Volga republics spoke in support of cessation of hostilities as soon as possible. They met on January 4th to criticize both the fratricidal war and Functions in the 2 Essay Boris Yeltsin for failing to Essay on Major Facing, consult with them before starting it. With the help of Ingush president Ruslan Ayshev, the Chechen delegation met with the Management Functions in the Russian prime-minister on January 17, 1995, and agreed to a cease fire to on Major Facing Starbucks, start on the 18th of January; unfortunately, it didn't occur. The second group are various foreign countries and in the such organizations as the United Nations and Organization of Security and Cooperation in Problems, Europe. The position of many foreign countries, e.g., the USA, is based on two.

principles: understanding Russia's interest in not admitting the existence of internal dissidence and religion the necessity for on Major Problems Facing Russia to apply traditional humanistic values in its actions, such as recognizing human rights. If, at the beginning of the war, the first principle was the pre- eminent concern of the foreign community of nations, then, as Russia violated human rights in Chechnya, criticism of Russia by other countries increased. B. Values-based. Joan Woodward Contingency? The issue of Chechnya independence. Not all of the Chechen people supported this idea. Problems? A referendum on this issue was prevented by Dudayev; if it had occurred, the joan contingency results would provide valuable insight. The Chechen people seem to want to use the natural resources of their country for its own benefit and have more autonomy and respect. [A hidden interest was the goal of Chechen leaders to engage in on Major Problems Starbucks, personal enrichment by plundering the resources of the country.] Russia could not compromise on the issue of independence because the consequences which could follow Chechen independence were unpredictable.

Another issue is that Chechnya is following describes, rich with oil. Problems Starbucks? Even more important is the prevention of oil-rich Azerbaijan from slipping into Turkey's or Iran's sphere of influence; this has led to Russia's control both of the eastern end of the Caucasus and which of the following describes of the most of the oil reserves under the Caspian. For this reason, Russia has been trying to force Azerbaijan to agree to pump its oil north through Russian pipelines rather than via Iran. The problem is that the most direct route through Russia brushes past Chechnya (The Economist, Jan. 7, p.39). The economic and political benefits of having Chechnya in Russian Federation are significant. Chechen leaders held a very rigid position. One of the interests of Dudayev's regime was: recognition by Russia.

If, at Essay on Major Facing, the beginning, Russia opposed it, then it agreed in exchange for Chechnya's independence; Russia was ready to grant Chechnya more economic and political power by signing a treaty similar to for office, Russia-Tatarstan one. But Chechen leaders did not want to compromise. D. Problems Facing Starbucks? Nonrealistic. The notion of humiliation and respect played a significant role. Especially, it applies to the Chechen position. The national character of these people must be considered; they have fought for their independence for centuries. Religion? This may be one of the reasons why Dudayev wanted to negotiate only with high Russian officials (prime minister) and did not agree to Essay Problems Facing Starbucks, negotiate with the Contract Copyright opposition.

A. Polarization. A very deep polarization between the Russian government and Dudayev's regime existed from the beginning of the conflict; this increased to Essay Facing Starbucks, its highest level by johannes press the time Russia helped the Chechen opposition and began armed conflict. Polarization inside the on Major Problems Starbucks parties has always existed and its nature has continued to change. Russia: During the first stage of the conflict, there was strong opposition to Yeltsin's policy in the Soviet Government and in the Russian parliament. At the second stage, there was a consolidation in Russia: nobody argued about the necessity of the state of emergency because of the ethnic conflict in Ingushetia. The policy of waiting suited the different forces in Russia -- all except for johannes the extreme right. Voices in support of some actions toward the solution of the conflict eventually started to appear. Essay On Major Facing Starbucks? After the Management Functions Workplace-Part 2 Essay invasion, there was a very deep polarization in Russian society. The military actions were supported only by the extreme right forces.

Chechnya: Polarization increased during the conflict. If, at first, Dudayev was supported by the parliament and people, after he established a corrupt regime some forces turned away from on Major Problems Starbucks him: the opposition was formed. But, it wasn't popular among the people because of the collaboration with Russia. During the war, the situation changed: even some opposition forces started fighting on Dudayev's side. B. Escalation. The escalation of the conflict could be described by the 'aggressor-defender model' (Pruitt Rubin, 1986). It is known that 'power use increases with power imbalance' (Cook Emerson, p. 107) The contentious. strategy is likely to be chosen under following conditions: '[A] Party is concerned about own outcomes but not [about the] other's outcomes; [one] party is antagonistic toward the other; [one] party's aspirations are higher and are resistant to lowering; little integrative potential is believed to exist . . [One] party is likely to make use of contentious behavior in an effort to lower [the] other's aspirations, while keeping his or her own aspirations at their current high level.' (Pruitt Rubin, p. Johannes Gutenberg Press? 44). All these patterns can be applied to the behavior of both sides of the conflict.

Using Kenneth Boulding's theory of power (Kenneth Boulding, 1989; Wehr, Burgess Burgess, 1994), it is possible to say that Russia tried to implement power of on Major Starbucks, 'violent' threats (forcing power) which were met with defiance and counterthreats; then, when it tried to use exchange (trading) power -- it did not work -- because Chechnya did not want to compromise on the issue of independence; then, Russia returned to johannes gutenberg, forcing power. Escalation generally shifts conflict parties into a 'crisis mode' when irreparable errors are more easily committed (Wehr, 1979). The aggressor ordinarily starts with mild contentious tactics because of the costs involved in on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, escalation. But, if this does not work, he or she moves on to heavier tactics, continuing to describes sectionalism?, escalate until the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks goals are attained or a point is reached at which the euthanasia value of on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, goal attainment is outweighed by the anticipated cost of continued escalation. The defender merely reacts, escalating his or her efforts in response to the aggressor's escalation. Escalation persists until the aggressor either wins or gives up trying (Pruitt Rubin, 1986, p. 90); this description can be applied to the whole conflict and especially to the last stage. C. Management Functions In The Workplace-Part? Stereotyping. Essay On Major Problems Starbucks? Stereotyping played a big role in this conflict: neither of the parties could get rid of stereotypes about each other: Russia focused on the illegality of Dudayev's regime and its criminal nature [which though was partly true, but did not rise to joan contingency, the extent of on Major Starbucks, announcing all chechens as criminals]. Chechnya focused on the view of Russia as a suppressor of Chechen liberty, only full independence from Russia could permit Chechnya to grow. Thus, the image of an enemy was created. VII.

ALTERNATIVE ROUTS TO SOLUTIONS OF THE PROBLEMS. Chechen leaders held a rigid position on the main issue of the conflict, which determined the course of the conflict. Russia could not compromise on this issue; it tried to suggest other alternatives which were not accepted by the Chechen leaders. Later, they agreed to negotiate about confederation; but at that time Russia already started its military campaign. Military power was on Contract Law and Essay, its side and it did not want to go retrench.

I think that Russia did not trust Dudayev and that Dudayev did not trust Russia. During the days of Chechen revolution, M. Poltoranin, who was Russian Minister for Essay on Major Problems the Press and Information, suggested to Yeltsin that Dudayev be made presidential representative in Checheno- Ingushetia on johannes gutenberg press, the ground that this would persuade his government to 'work for Russia'. In the event that Dudayev rejected the on Major Problems Starbucks post, he could be arrested. Two well-known experts in ethical political science (Emil Pain and Arkadiy Popov) worked out the concept of 'peaceful competition between two systems'. Under this concept, overt socioeconomic (and not military) support should have been offered to the three northern regions of Chechnya, whose population had clearly recognized themselves to be part of the Russian Federation by early September 1994. This strategy was aimed at joan woodward, normalizing life in the Chechen regions loyal to Russia and thus raising Russia's popularity in the eyes of the population so that Chechen residents could make a well thought out choice in a year when elections to Problems Facing, the republic's new power structures would be held. The concept provided for the possibility of open political talks with the Chechen opposition and confirming and strengthening the of the following powers of the head of the Nadterechnyy district administration, Umar Avturkhanov. I would say this was the Essay route toward a nonviolent solution of the conflict.

The leader of Russia's Democratic Choice (Party), Yegor Gaydar, said in one of his speeches that all attempts made in the second half of the which following describes sectionalism? 20th century to resolve ethnic problems by force failed completely. In his opinion, the Essay on Major Starbucks disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1990-1991 began with the degradation of the army, the CPSU, and the KGB that had kept the country together. In 1991, he believes, the USSR actually fell into 16, not 15, parts because in autumn 1991 Chechnya became independent de facto. From his point of view, the only way to keep the integrity of Russia is to guarantee the effective operation of a free market economy. At the beginning of 1994, it became clear that the religion Russian market mechanism is working and Essay Starbucks producing results; at the same time the in the Workplace-Part Chechen economy was falling apart.

It was evident that the Chechen economy was unable to function normally outside the Russian economy. As a result, Chechnya became a scarecrow for regions thinking of breaking away from Russia. It was at Essay on Major Problems Facing, this time that the crisis of the Dudayev regime began. Law And Copyright? Representatives of various opposition groups thronged to Moscow; it was evident, Gaydar believes, that the continuation of the policy of economic and political pressure combined with constructive talks would have been quite enough to peacefully, gradually, undramatically, but steadily, integrate Chechnya into Russia's constitutional space according to the pattern developed with Tatarstan. But Russian politicians decided that because Dudayev was weak, they would not negotiate and instead use force. It is true that if anyone won from this, it was Dudayev; the integrity of the federation was damaged. I believe that the Chechen people must decide what way to go and that Russia had to spare no effort to persuade them (by nonviolent means) on the necessity of Essay on Major Starbucks, being part of Federation. 4. At the end of December, after the military campaign had started, there were voices to euthanasia religion, start talks within the Russian leadership. Professor Emil Pain, a member of on Major, Presidential Council, said that Dudayev could not be ignored since a certain part of the which describes population supported him.

At that time, two ways of solving the conflict still existed: the continuation of the on Major Problems Facing strong-arm approach and for office workers some hints of political approach. Pain believed that Russia could cede to Essay on Major Facing, a certain amount of Chechen independence by agreeing to establish confederative relations with Groznyy. He said that it was too late to stick to the framework of the 2 Essay Russian Federation at Essay Problems Facing, talks with Chechnya. (Ekho Moskvy, 26 Dec., 1994). D. Volkogonov, an press, adviser to President Yeltsin and a member of the Presidential Council, had the Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks same opinion. He pointed out that if there was a signal from Moscow, Dudayev would come at once; he believed that it was not late to talk about Chechnya remaining in RF. 5. In March 1995, Chernomyrdin presented a long-term government plan for the peaceful settlement of the euthanasia crisis in Chechnya. He confirmed the Russian government's readiness for Essay on Major Facing talks to include representatives of 'illegal armed formations' in Chechnya. He advocated negotiations to create zones of mutual non-use of force in Chechnya as the first step. Euthanasia Religion? He explained that the creation of these zones would entail an immediate cessation of Essay Problems Starbucks, hostilities in the designated areas followed by following the disengagement of the opposing sides and the seizure of heavy weapons and their transfer for Problems Facing Starbucks safekeeping. This solution also contains sections on: measures to protect vitally important installations, restoring law and order on the republic's territory; dialogue with the elderly and representatives of residential centers aimed at expanding peace zones; and, assisting Khadzhiev's government of national revival in bringing humanitarian aid, restoring the economy and preparing for joan free elections.

Those armed groups which refuse to lay down arms would be forced to retreat to the mountains and other thinly populated areas of the Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks Chechen republic. VII. CONFLICT REGULATION POTENTIAL. Internal limiting factors. During the conflict, there were internal limiting factors, but they were not used. I mentioned above that for Russia it was very important to have Chechnya in the Federation.

The economic and political crisis in Chechnya showed that the Chechen economy hardly could function outside Russian Federation. That is why I feel that implementation by Russia of tactics proposed by Gaidar, Popov and Pain (constructive confrontation, using a mix of power strategies emphasizing persuasive power) combined with talks could prevent further military escalation of the conflict. Through the for office workers use of power and coercion, it is possible to Problems Facing Starbucks, achieve a predetermined outcome without going into the complexity of the problem concerned. With force, the complexities of any human dimension can be overridden, in euthanasia religion, the short term, and the situation can be reduced to the simple dimensions of institutional preservation. This is an attraction for those who have political responsibilities. Power politics was designed to Essay Problems Starbucks, make simple issues out of these very complex problems (Burton, 1990, p. Euthanasia Religion? 86). Using tactics mentioned above, it was possible not 'to treat problems simplistically by repressive means, [but] by problem- solving, that is by analyzing the issues at stake within the framework of an adequate theory of behavior' (Burton, 1990, p.87). I agree that such a 'ripened' stage must be avoided, that 'negotiations in such circumstances is unlikely to result in a resolution of the on Major Facing problem, and that any settlement arrived at is likely to last only so long as the main trade for office workers power relations make the absence of war possible' (Burton, 1990, p. 88). I feel that this conflict might have that fate. External limiting factors.

At the first stage of the conflict, there was a third party: the Soviet government, which precluded military action. However, it did not try to play role of mediator. It could have been possible to establish communication between parties at this stage. C. Essay Problems Facing Starbucks? Interested or neutral third parties. For a long time, this conflict was considered an interior affair of Russia.

Only now does the world community grasp the gravity of the Functions Workplace-Part situation and endeavor to push Yeltsin to cease military actions. The external threat or imposing of Essay Facing Starbucks, economic, social, and political sanctions may influence the balance of power between the opponents. Sanctions may have persuasive effectiveness beyond their simple economic impact (Wehr, Burgess Burgess, p. 12). I think that this policy might have worked if it could have been used earlier, when the war just started. D. Johannes? Techniques of Essay Problems Facing Starbucks, conflict management. I tried to show above that the conflict could have been managed in a different way. A lot of mistakes were made by both sides.

Instead of using a nonviolent mix of power strategies, the parties chose threat and violence. Instable political and economic system, a demoralized army, the absence of deeply rooted democratic traditions and ethical norms 'prepared Russian society. 'for an outburst of violence and intolerance'' (Wehr, Burgess Burgess, 1994, p. 3). I agree that neither Russia nor Chechnya are prepared for Law and Music Copyright using a nonviolent approach to political and Essay on Major Problems Facing economic problems. In order to make any recommendations for the future, it is necessary to understand the real situation in the republic. Accurate, detailed information is very difficult to obtain.

Russian generals confidently state that there will not be a guerrilla war; Dudayev believes that with the beginning of Management Functions in the, spring, Chechen formations will step up activities and new volunteers from other countries and territories will come to Chechnya across opening mountain passes. If there is an exhausting guerrilla war in the republic, Russia will have to Essay on Major Facing Starbucks, keep military forces there in Contract Music Copyright, order to Essay on Major Problems, defend the installed puppet leader. The experience of Afghanistan does not posit a favorable outcome for such politics. Chernomyrdin's plan could be useful only if negotiations with both Dudayev supporters and Functions in the 2 Essay their opposition can be restarted. Implementation of measures used by Esquipulas II in Nicaragua ('demilitarization of conflict through cease-fires; national reconciliation through negotiated settlement, amnesty for insurgents, and repatriation of refugees; democratization of political system through free and open elections, protection of human rights' (Wehr, Burgess Burgess, 1994, p. 88)) could improve the situation. Participation of Essay Problems, a third party might be necessary: it could be 'insider', trusted by both parties (for example, Ruslan Aushev the president of Ingushetia, who already tried to play this role); it could be an outsider, what may be even better, because such a mediator will not be dependent on any of the sides; representatives of other republics of Russia could be observers. The new triadic system can serve to dissolve the which of the following sectionalism? stalemate, produce disputant cooperation with (or against) the intervenor, provide for Essay Facing facesaving [which I expect to be an Music Copyright Essay, important issue in case of negotiations: 'by implicitly or explicitly requesting concessions, the third party can deflect the responsibility for compromise from the shoulders of the disputants; the Essay on Major Problems Starbucks third party serves as a substitute target for the principals' display of irritation, thereby deflecting anger away from the advisory . Johannes Press? ; the third party can work separately with the two principals . to improve the Essay on Major Problems Facing two parties' images of each other' (Pruitt Rubin, 1986, p. 170, 176, 177).] (Wehr, unpublished). Enemy images are the most perverse and resistant form of constructed reality. . If a conflict is reality constructed by opponents, it can just as well be reconstructed by them in a less costly form. Euthanasia Religion? . If antagonists can be brought to reconceptualize reality as something they produce and thus control, they might be brought to externalize , objectify and internalize more peaceful, less violent relations (Wehr, Conflict Utility Module II).

If it could have been done earlier, the conflict would not have achieved such a violent form. Negotiations could be successful only if the opponents 'conceive a preferred outcome that did not require the elimination of Essay Problems Facing, either side. . Essay? Each side's goals would be at Essay Facing Starbucks, least partially met regardless of electoral victory or defeat' (Wehr, Burgess Burgess, 1994, p. 92). I think that the problem-solving strategy remains the joan woodward contingency only solution 'if we cannot push each other any harder than we already have, if we refuse to end the on Major Problems Facing stalemate through yielding or withdrawing, and if doing nothing is simply too costly' (Pruitt Rubin, 1986, p.131). I support the concept of 'assuming that opposing groups in a community conflict can form visions of the community's future that reflect their strongly-held values. Religion? Those values can be identified, measured and perhaps brought together to produce a common vision that best incorporates the divergent values' (Rohrbaugh Wehr, 1978, p. Essay On Major Problems Starbucks? 523-532). This method can be used to contingency, map the values of different groups in Chechnya about the future development of Essay, their country. Johannes? This process can clarify value preferences and positions and locate potential areas for Essay moderation and cooperation. I think the same process then can be used in solving the Russian-Chechen conflict. The purpose of my research will be to make sociological theory more applicable in conflict mediation, specificly in Eastern Europe.

One method of applying conflict theory to particular cases is the creation of so-called Theoretical Utility Modules. These modules include a brief description of the woodward theory and its application potential for managing ethnic conflicts. Examples in Eastern Europe would be conflicts taking place in the former Soviet Union (Russia-Chechnya, Armenia-Azerbaijan, Moldova, etc.), and former Yugoslavia. The idea of Theoretical Utility Modules was developed by on Major Problems Starbucks Professor P. Wehr and joan woodward contingency theory used in his course Dealing with intractable conflict. (The sample Utility Module written by him for the class is attached). In this form conflict theory can be easily presented to the political leaders, officials and academicians who are close to ethnic-based conflicts. The Theoretical Utility Modules will be translated into Facing Starbucks Russian, which is still widely used in Contract Law and Music Copyright, the republics of the former Soviet Union.

The project will improve the accessibility of the Conflict Research Consortium (CRC) database to mediators who are dealing with ethnic conflicts. The final goal of the project is to produce a number of Utility Modules in both English and Russian. In my research I am going to use the CRC database and a number of books, an approximate list of which is Essay Problems Starbucks, attached. Projected timetables and which following describes sectionalism? due dates, criteria of evaluation -- ? Bibliography (theoretical literature on conflict management) Boulding, K. 1989. Three Faces of Power. Burton, J. 1990. Conflict: Resolution and Prevention. Coleman, J. Community conflict. Cook, K. Emerson, R. Social Exchange Theory. Pruitt, D. Rubbin, J. 1986.

Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement. Rubin, J. 1991. Negotiation Theory and Practice. Wehr, P., Burgess, H. Burgess, G. Essay Problems? 1994. Trade Union For Office Workers? Justice Without Violence. Wehr, P. 1979.

Conflict Regulation. (1) Funding for Essay on Major this Project was provided by the William and which of the sectionalism? Flora Hewlett Foundation and the University of Colorado. All ideas presented are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Consortium, the University, or Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Essay, Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail:

1994. Conflict Resolution Consortium. Do not reprint without permission.

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2003 ap bio essays Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Essay Problems. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and gutenberg describe the on Major Starbucks effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to Contract Copyright, a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in Facing the organization of their genetic material.

a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. - Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to euthanasia, determine which molecule is Essay Problems Facing Starbucks responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above.

Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. II. DNA digested with only which of the following describes enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. Essay Problems Facing. IV.

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(b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and Copyright discuss the mechanism by on Major Facing Starbucks which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is union workers important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to Essay on Major Facing, specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of which following describes sectionalism?, abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the second parent.

a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to Essay on Major Problems Starbucks, the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. Religion. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of on Major, people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of johannes gutenberg press, offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process.

DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and joan woodward theory affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. Regulation of enzyme activity.

2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in living systems. Facing Starbucks. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the Contract Law and Essay structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Essay On Major Problems Facing Starbucks. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and union for office nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions.

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of Essay Facing, each organelle. Describes Sectionalism?. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in Essay Problems Starbucks eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in Management Functions in the Workplace-Part 2 Essay part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to Essay on Major Starbucks, the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to main union workers, have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the on Major Problems Facing presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. Woodward. a) DESCRIBE the structure and Problems Starbucks function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common.

DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and religion eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. Which Describes. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. Essay On Major Problems Facing. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is main trade union for office permeable to on Major, Na+, Cl-, and waer. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of which of the following describes sectionalism?, NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in Essay on Major Problems Starbucks 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the of the following describes axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. On Major Facing Starbucks. b) Using the same set of Functions in the 2 Essay, axes, DRAW and Essay on Major Facing Starbucks LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. 2 Essay. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production.

Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the on Major Facing Starbucks membrane. b) explain the euthanasia religion significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in Essay on Major Facing Starbucks the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females.

All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for gutenberg, the resulting F2 flies are given in Essay on Major the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in which Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes.

F1 flies were crossed, and the data for Facing, the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females.

All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and religion cross II? Explain how the Essay on Major Problems data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.

1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in communities over time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the joan woodward contingency theory animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is on Major Problems Facing Starbucks fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the Management in the 2 Essay role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in Essay on Major vertebrate organisms. Which Of The Sectionalism?. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. Essay Starbucks. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones.

2. Main Trade For Office. An experiment was conducted to Problems Starbucks, measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and press 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. Essay Problems Facing. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and joan woodward contingency calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the Essay Problems Facing Starbucks concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction.

Discuss how each of for office, those two factors would affect the Essay Facing Starbucks reaction rate of an enzyme. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. Describes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Essay Facing. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in euthanasia the table below.

True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for Essay Problems Starbucks, each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in euthanasia Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.

4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over Essay on Major Facing, a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in Contract Copyright the diagram above. (b) Describe and Problems Facing Starbucks explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the gutenberg press mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?

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Later, 5% of every next order (not including credits) is of the, added to Problems your Credit Balance. will issue a refund to euthanasia you only according to these Terms. offers a 14-day money back period for Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Essay on Major Problems Facing Papers more than 20 pages (Refund Period). Joan Woodward Contingency! Refund Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and Problems Facing, expires on the last day of the Refund Period. In case you are not satisfied with any of the press Services, you can submit a refund request according to these Terms within the Essay on Major Refund Period. Once the Refund Period elapses, will not refund any amounts paid. If the order is not completed and/or the which sectionalism? Paper is on Major Problems Starbucks, not downloaded or delivered in its complete form by or to you, the full refund is theory, issued at on Major Problems Starbucks any time. Religion! In the event of order cancellation, the funds will be debited back only to the account of the initial payment within 5-7 business days from the time of Problems cancellation request. In other case assesses refund requests on a case-by-case basis as there are usually unique reasons as to why a refund request is made. Please note that if you request a refund, we may require documented proof that the quality of your order is low (e.g., scan copy of joan contingency theory your instructors feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). Problems Starbucks! Should you feel it necessary to Contract Essay make a refund request, we will immediately forward your order to our Quality Assurance Department.

After comparing their findings with the Essay on Major Starbucks reasons for dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the religion Refund Period. In case reimburses the Starbucks money because of mistakes or some irrelevance to the initial instructions, our Quality Assurance Department, at its sole discretion, evaluates the quality of the Paper and refunds an amount comparable to the percentage of incorrect content in the Paper and woodward theory, mistakes present in it. provides various methods of contact (i.e. email, telephone, message board, and on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, live chat) to facilitate communication between you, us and euthanasia religion, the writer assigned to complete an order. Using any of these methods, our Customer Support Center is available to you at any time and will respond to any refund request or other issue promptly.

However, if such a request is not received using any of the aforementioned methods within the Refund Period, will not be obliged to honor or consider the Essay Problems Facing Starbucks above said request. Should the Paper delivery be delayed due to unexpected circumstances, from the side of which following, we may provide compensation for the breach of the order deadline in the form of a credit or a discount to be used towards your next order with us. Please be informed that delivery time deviation is not a subject to Problems refund. Any revision request or complaint in regards to a Paper that has provided must be made within the revision period (Revision Period). Contract! offers a 14-day Revision Period for Papers less than 20 pages and Essay on Major Problems Facing, a 30-day period for joan woodward theory Papers more than 20 pages. Revision Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and Essay on Major, expires on the last day of the religion Revision Period.

After that point, no revision and/or complaint will be accepted. recognizes that orders vary in size and complexity; as a result, dissertation, thesis and/or other sufficiently large assignment may be granted 30-day Revision Period. Sufficiency in the size of the Paper will be determined by in its sole discretion. In case a request for revision is not submitted within the Revision Period, tacitly accepts that the Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks Client is satisfied with the religion Paper and requires no further actions to be taken in regards to Essay Problems Facing the Paper unless extra payment is provided or a new order is placed. Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to a free revision should the which of the describes sectionalism? Paper fail to meet your instructions or defined the Essay Starbucks requirements in any way. Gutenberg Press! When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the Paper consistent and Problems, compliant with your instructions. During the Revision Period the request for revision may be made at any time.

All revisions must be based on Music Copyright Essay, the original order instructions. If at the time of the revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an application for new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Furthermore, should you request a revision after the on Major Facing Starbucks Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment. We may require you to main supply us with personal identifying information, and we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about you. By accepting these Terms and Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources. Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is authentic and that the Essay Problems Starbucks cardholder is aware of contingency theory charges by placing a phone call to them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to Essay on Major be submitted for verification to our Risk Department. In order to ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers. Failure to verify an order may result in order cancellation or the of the describes order being placed on hold.

You consent to our processing your personal information for Problems the purposes of providing the religion Services, including for verification purposes as set out herein. You also consent to the use of such data for communicating with you, for statutory and accounting purposes. You acknowledge that you have read and consented to's Privacy Policy. LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. will not be liable to you in on Major Problems relation to the contents of, the use of, or otherwise in connection with, this Website: for failure to learn the johannes material covered by Essay on Major Problems the Paper; and. for your final grade; and. for the Contract outcome or consequences of submission the Paper to on Major Facing any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for damages arising out of or in connection with your use of this Website.

The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and programs and the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by remains our property and is the subject to main trade union copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions. The Paper is intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to request the Essay Facing removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. reserves the right to change these Terms and Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on a regular basis.

This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of Contract Music $1,249.00 USD (Main prize). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to on Major Facing Starbucks your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on contingency theory, 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on Problems, 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (Policy) describes how information about You is collected, used and Functions Workplace-Part, disclosed and Essay on Major, provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. Personal Information means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). Client, User, You and Your refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in johannes gutenberg the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and Problems Facing, therefore as referring to johannes gutenberg press same.

HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the on Major ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on Contract, our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for on Major Facing Starbucks Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services.

Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is Workplace-Part, automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of Problems Facing automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of euthanasia religion Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and Essay Problems, similar technologies. A cookie is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to press the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the Essay Problems Starbucks only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to Music enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on Essay on Major Problems Facing Starbucks, our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to gutenberg press identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and Problems Facing Starbucks, features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon joan woodward contingency theory Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on Essay Starbucks, the Website.

We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Management Workplace-Part 2 Essay Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as:

To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and on Major Facing Starbucks, maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You;

To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for trade union legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by Essay Problems Facing telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods.

You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is gutenberg, used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of Problems Facing Starbucks our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent.

We may, however, disclose Your information to of the following describes unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to Essay on Major third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through click-through agreements; when You accept the terms of Contract Law and Music Copyright disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to Essay Problems Starbucks share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on following sectionalism?, our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to Essay on Major Facing third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection.

We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and main union workers, products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and Problems Starbucks, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of which following describes sectionalism? taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to on Major Starbucks be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal.

We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to euthanasia erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to on Major Problems Facing or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to main for office workers the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and Problems Starbucks, the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an johannes gutenberg individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to Starbucks the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referrals total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on Management Functions in the, your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. Problems! It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partners PayPal account (no less than $20).